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Old 2nd October 2020
  #1
Here for the gear
 
Newbie question regarding Scale Degrees

Hi,
I tried to search to find the answer to my basic questions regarding scale degrees but have actually failed . I hope you can be so kind and sorten this out for me.

Question: Are scale degrees for non major scales somehow based on the major scale degrees?

This is the most common description of scale degrees I have found: "scale degree refers to the position of a particular note on a scale relative to the tonic"

In the Major scale it all seems to be that simple:
D Major
D - E - F# - G - A - B - C#
1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7

But then the D major pentatonic scale is: D - E - F# - A - B
Then if I simply count positions in the scale it would give me scale degrees:
D - E - F# - A - B
1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5

But then I have seen people refereeing to the scale degrees of the regular major scale when they write that scale. "A" get the scale degree 5 as in the major and we have no scale degree 4:
D - E - F# - A - B
1 - 2 - 3 - 5 - 6

Which one is correct?

Another way I have seen people writing scale degrees is to also use flat and sharp symbols:
G Major scale
G - A - B - C - D - E -F♯
1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7

Then G natural minor scale degrees are using "b" to show relationship to major.
G natural minor scale
G - A - Bb - C - D - Eb - F
1 - 2 - b3 - 4 - 5 - b6 - b7

So should scale degrees use b (flat) or #(sharp) to show if they are flatten or raised compared to the major notes? I haven't found any text explaining this (but I'm sure it's out there somewhere).
Is it just a "flavour" on how to write scale degrees?

What about scales with more than 7 notes? Are scale degrees only using numbers 1 -7?

For example the Chromatic scale seems not use scale degrees 1 - 12 but instead

1 - ♯1/♭2 - 2 - ♯2/♭3 - 3 - 4 - ♯4 ♭5 - 5 - ♯5 ♭6 - 6 - ♯6 ♭7 - 7

I assume I missed I vital part that will explain all of this.

Bonus question: How do I do tables in my post so I can get the Note and degree rows aligned?

Thank you!