Audio-Technica AT4033a by Cinnamon
I bought this mic about 5 years ago and I continue to use it in almost every application. It sounds great on vocals, acoustic guitar (most acoustic instruments...), electric guitar, and drum overheads.
The AT4033a has a distinct color it adds that I would describe as a smooth warmth and also a bit of a bite around 3kHz and 6kHz. The frequency response is not flat, but it has a pleasing, smooth, color to it. I find at times that the bump at 3kHz is mildly unpleasant on piercing vocals, but it is possible to capture a nice airy sound with the bump at 6kHz and 10kHz.
The top end makes it great for drum overheads and high-hat, but the cardiod pattern does not make it ideal for use as a room mic. I've seen this mic used as a room mic many times before, but I have never been happy with the sound compared to a mic with a figure 8 or omni pattern to capture more of the "life" of the room.
The AT4033a sounds good on guitar amps as a compliment to an SM57 (or other brighter mic), but I have found it can be a little boomy and can cloud up a mix if the low end is not controlled with EQ.
The AT4033a has a HPF switch and a -10dB pad. It can easily handle drums (it is rated to handle 145dB and 155dB with the pad). It is sturdy, built well, and has a nice weight to it.
Audio Technica has made several versions of this mic (the AT4033, the AT4033a, the AT4033/CL, etc.), but to my knowledge they are almost identical. I am specifically reviewing the AT4033a because I have not heard the CL version, but it appears to be identical with newer parts.
Audio Technica only sells the newer version of this mic called the AT4033/CL (which stands for CLASSIC) on their website, but it is possible to find the AT4033a used other places.
If you are starting out buying gear, this should be one of the first microphones you purchase. For ~$400, this is (IMO) the best mic you can purchase under $500 that will sound great on almost anything.