The No.1 Website for Pro Audio
 All  This Thread  Reviews  Gear Database  Gear for sale     Latest  Trending
Bus , Aux and Sends tracks
Old 6th April 2017
  #1
Here for the gear
 

Bus , Aux and Sends tracks

Hi.. there .I am relatively new with mixing. Cud anyone help me out with aux,bus and sends?
1. Someone plz explain aux, bus and sends separately.
2.When should I use them?
3. Why should I use them?
4.And of course HOW should I use them.

I wud be grateful if sm1 told hw these tracks work in cubase 5(cz i am using dat DAW)

Thnx in advance
Old 6th April 2017
  #2
Lives for gear
 

Busses are super cool to use and can greatly expand your creativity.

Lets begin very simple first. If you can grasp the simply you can expand the options for more complex scenarios.

Lets work off a hardware model first. Digital DAW's simply copy that digital model so its best to begin there.

I'll use a couple of analogies. If you're a guitarist these should be familiar.
If you own a guitar amp with an effects send that effects loop is an auxiliary buss.

A guitar amp consists of two main sections - the preamp you plug your instrument in to which gets the pickup signal strength up from its less then one volt output to line level. The preamp feeds the power amp that raises the power up strong enough to drive a speaker. The preamp has all your volume/drive and tone controls and any effects the amp may have. The power amp only drives the speakers.

An effect loop breaks the connection between the preamp and power amp and puts whatever effect you connect in series before the power amp.

Now this is the key item - many effects have a mix knob where you can adjust between full effect or full dry (they usually have a bypass switch for this too)
Your mix knobs allow you to adjust how much effect there is compared to the dry.

The chain would be Instrument> Preamp> Effect> Power amp> Speaker

Higher end Hardware mixers have similar routing possibilities, except they can be more complex. Instead of only having one channel and one effects loop you can have many.

Lets say we want two channels to use the same effect. We connect the effect to the first Aux Buss. We take the first two channels and send them to the first AUX buss - then send the aux buss out through the mains buss. We now have two mics feeding into the same effects unit. This saves us from having to buy say two echo units for each channel and costing us all that money to own two. The other benefit is the echoes coming from the one unit will be the same for both mics. If were used two echoes we'd have no way to sync the repeats.

Next you might say, most PA mixers have an effects send and return. Why not just use that? Well that buss is global. All your tracks would feed to it and all you can do is adjust how much. With an aux buss, I could put chorus on that buss and only have it on those two mics. I could then send them through the effects buss so I have chorus and echo but all the other mics only have echo.

You can see how the use of effects here become stackable and independent.

Many mixers also have an insert. Inserts are on individual channels. They connect the effects in and out between the first preamp gain stage (trim) and the channel volume and EQ. This is much like having guitar pedals before the amp. There are usually buttons called Pre and post too.

When you select Pre that effect is inserted Before the channel slider and Channel EQ. If you select post - it rewires the effect so its after the channel slider. Any changes to IE or volume come before the effect (like a guitar amps effect loop comes after the preamp)

The insert on a hardware mixer is where you are likely placing your individual effects now. You're essentially placing all your effects before a guitar amp.
That's fine for some things if you want only that track to have that effect. You run into problems when you're using that same effect over and over on many tracks, especially of its a CPU hog. Add too many and it can crash the program.

This is where setting up the busses come in. For example you may want the bass and kick to be compressed together so they're attack and decay pump together.
you create a buss, stick the compressor in the buss, then assign the Tracks to the buss - and assign the Buss to the mains. Now you have one compressor controlling two tracks.

Reverb may be another. Say your want your lead guitar to have the same reverb as the snare. You do the same things. Assign the tracks to a buss and assign the buss to the mains. you now have the same stereo reverb for both.

Now we throw a monkey wrench in there. We need more reverb on the snare then we do on the guitar (or vice versa)
This is where your Buss send and return levels come in. Not sure about most DAW's but the ones I've used have the send and return levels fully cranked when you set up a buss. You usually have to go to your menus and make your send and return knobs visible and active and then you can adjust how much of a tracks signal goes to the buss and how much goes to the mains. They are like that mix knob on an effects unit where you can adjust between full effect and dry except it gives you a little more control. You can adjust the level going to that buss and returning from it. You also have a pre and post setting so you can move the effect to be before your channel strip or after.

I'm not going to go much farther then this for now. To a beginner new to recording, I may have lost you farther back but that's enough to get you thinking what can be done with Busses. You can run one buss into another buss, into another buss adding effects and different channels as you go. How complex you go is purely a creative decision. Its always best to plan what you want to do before you begin so it is easier to get there.

One thing you will begin to understand is how many of those commercial songs are built. If you have 10 different instruments move left to right and increase in reverb, while the other 10 move right to left and increased in chorus, its unlikely that engineer pulled that trick off tweaking all 20 tracks at the same time. It could be done but talk about torture getting that maneuver synced. All he needed to do was send 10 to one buss, 10 to the other, set up reverb left on one set up chorus right one the other, the use auto panning on each channel and have it synced. The two channels will pan to the other side where the effects are and you move 20 instruments at the same time and add effects when they move.

Of course I have no idea what that would sound like. The thing is I have that box chart in my mind and know how to add those additional boxes to it and simply plug in any effects I need to get the job done. The rest is simply trial and error and doing enough experiments to predict what the results will be.
Old 6th April 2017
  #3
Lives for gear
 

Auxes and sends are the same thing, just different terms.
Auxes are usually used for additional (auxiliary) routing such as creating monitor mixes and sending program material to effects busses.
A bus is any track that has or can have more than one track of program material sent to it. Think of a bus as carrying passengers, each track you send to a "reverb bus" for instance is a passenger on the reverb bus. Mix bus is just that, everything in your mix riding the bus. Of course, you can have only one track sent to a bus, a bus with only one passenger, but you can always stop and pick up more (send more tracks) at any time. You can also feed busses into other busses (ie. Snare->short delay->reverb). If the effects are on different busses, you can send other things straight to the reverb and bypass the short delay. Anyway, read up on signal routing/flow. Plenty of info out there.
Old 6th April 2017
  #4
Lives for gear
 

Quote:
Originally Posted by changoe View Post
Auxes and sends are the same thing, just different terms.
Auxes are usually used for additional (auxiliary) routing such as creating monitor mixes and sending program material to effects busses.
A bus is any track that has or can have more than one track of program material sent to it. Think of a bus as carrying passengers, each track you send to a "reverb bus" for instance is a passenger on the reverb bus. Mix bus is just that, everything in your mix riding the bus. Of course, you can have only one track sent to a bus, a bus with only one passenger, but you can always stop and pick up more (send more tracks) at any time. You can also feed busses into other busses (ie. Snare->short delay->reverb). If the effects are on different busses, you can send other things straight to the reverb and bypass the short delay. Anyway, read up on signal routing/flow. Plenty of info out there.
Not quite. Words have specific meanings. You have to be careful not to confuse people with inaccurate definitions. I'm sure you understand it well enough to work with it but you need a little rebuild on those analogies.

Don't think of a bus as an actually school bus. Busses don't move, think of bus as verb instead.

A bus is a pathway, or a road the signals ride on. It can be a single lane road or a multilane highway. The signal or data is the vehicle that rides on the highway.

The information moving on the signal is being "Bussed/moved" from point A to Point B.

(that's where they got the term from, not the vehicle),

The vehicle in digital has another name - called a packet - not a bus. (In analog its an AC sine wave that contains musical information). Packets which are full of bits and the bits are the information. Packets follow the highways (bus) while obeying the laws, formats and rules called "Protocol"

Sends are not busses, they on ramps to those roads or highways Returns are off ramps.

An auxiliary send is a port, a routing output, to the aux buss. It often has a switch or potentiometer a light that regulates the flow onto the buss.

An Aux Return simply does the opposite of the send, it returns the signal back from the Bus.

The path of the signal or data may go like this. It begins in a strip mall (channel strip) where you can gather your EQ tones pump your tires up to any size you want to make the vehicle larger (signal gain) or add effects (have the vehicle painted/overhauled).

The mall has a choice of exits. You can exit the local road which takes you to the mains output buss.

Or you can choose the send ramp that takes you to the Aux Bus. That ramp has a light that meters the traffic (send pot and switch)

Once on that multilane highway every one on the highway has to pass through Tolls (Buss Effects) before you exit on a return ramp to the road that takes you to the output buss/interface.

You can go from one buss to another like humping off one highway to get to another. You can ride the highway to the strip mall then the local road to the main buss/interface.

You get to play god when mixing and move the entrance and exit ramps to these local roads and highways, add toll booths and regulate traffic.

Last edited by wrgkmc; 7th April 2017 at 12:24 PM..
Old 3 weeks ago
  #5
Here for the gear
 

here is something about bus tracks in the studio.
badracket.com/using-bus-tracks-aka-bussing-to-mix-your-tracks/
Old 2 weeks ago
  #6
Gear Guru
 

Quote:
Originally Posted by pmixer View Post
Hi.. there .I am relatively new with mixing. Cud anyone help me out with aux,bus and sends?
1. Someone plz explain aux, bus and sends separately.
2.When should I use them?
3. Why should I use them?
4.And of course HOW should I use them.

I wud be grateful if sm1 told hw these tracks work in cubase 5(cz i am using dat DAW)

Thnx in advance
Don't get mad, but I think you'll get more answers if you write proper English instead of internet 'lingo'. It just makes it easier to read and get to the point.

Secondly, different DAWs and different hardware use names differently, and that's why you'll get different answers and maybe disagreements from people that aren't answering specifically with Cubase in mind. There is a Cubase and Nuendo section at Gearslutz so you may want to read and post there to get more specific answers.

My answers to your questions - with Cubendo ("Cubase/Nuendo") in mind:

1.

"Aux"; Cubendo doesn't really have them. I think the only time the word is used is to actually describe sending signals out of your DAW for a specific purpose, such as cue/headphone mix outputs. By contrast, in for example Pro Tools an "aux" is a channel that takes an input signal that is not from disk and then sends it to an output. The input can be a "bus" or a physical input. The output can be a "bus" or a physical output.


"Bus";
In Cubendo a "bus" appears to be a path into the DAW or out of the DAW. So an "Input Bus" would be what your physical inputs are connected to, and it is then routed to an audio track that you record on. The recorded audio on that track then gets sent to your main output, and that main output is essentially an "output bus" and is connected to your interface output(s). In Pro Tools this word is used differently.

"Sends"; A send is generally in all DAWs a 'copy' of a signal at a certain point in your channel. This copy is then sent wherever you decide you want to send it. "Sends" can be pre-fader and post-fader. If a "send" is "pre-fader" then it means that it will send a signal that is unchanged by the fader that now comes after in the signal chain. If it is "post-fader" (often default) then if you lower the fader on the channel to complete silence then the send will also be completely silent (not sending anything).

"Group" and "FX" channels; You didn't ask about this but this is important since you're using Cubendo. A "Group" channel will take several signals and sum them to one mono or stereo (or more) channel. This allows you to control and process several signals at one point/time. An "FX" channel is very similar to a "Group" in Cubendo and my personal opinion is that the best reason for using FX channels is to organize the project/mixer.

2-4.

One example in Cubendo on why and how to use the above is for example treating a set of background vocals. So imagine you have 12 tracks of background vocals. You place an EQ on each individual track, do some basic leveling on them, maybe with automation and compressors on inserts, and then you move to the next step.

You set the output of all of those tracks to a Group channel that you label "B-vox". This now means you can process all vocals together. So you place another compressor on an insert on B-vox and that will help them "blend" together a bit better. You might use another EQ on there as well, to adjust the overall tonality of them. And finally you set the level of all of them with the B-vox fader.

In addition to this you use a send on "B-vox". You set the destination of that send to an FX channel. On that FX channel you place a reverb on an insert. The send is post-fader by default and you set the send-fader to zero change (not all the way down or up). You leave the reverb 100% wet on the FX channel and use the fader on the FX channel to now set the amount of reverb relative to the dry level on "B-vox". Whenever you now lower the level on "B-vox" the signal going into your reverb will drop as well, all the way to zero if you want to. The FX channel's reverb output will "follow" the fader of the "B-vox" Group.

That's one example of how to use Groups, FX channels and sends in Cubendo.

To understand pre-/post-fader sends take the above example and switch the send to pre-fader. Now move the faders of B-vox and the FX channel and listen.

The use of Steinberg's "buses" should be "obvious".
Topic:
Post Reply

Welcome to the Gearslutz Pro Audio Community!

Registration benefits include:
  • The ability to reply to and create new discussions
  • Access to members-only giveaways & competitions
  • Interact with VIP industry experts in our guest Q&As
  • Access to members-only sub forum discussions
  • Access to members-only Chat Room
  • Get INSTANT ACCESS to the world's best private pro audio Classifieds for only USD $20/year
  • Promote your eBay auctions and Reverb.com listings for free
  • Remove this message!
You need an account to post a reply. Create a username and password below and an account will be created and your post entered.


 
 
Slide to join now Processing…
Thread Tools
Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search
Forum Jump
Forum Jump