Great question. I think this should be something taught NYU and UCLA USC film school... but, it's not very sexy.
Normally, the entire sound crew has chosen some sort of abbreviation (i've always wondered why this is such a long word) for the job. Sometimes it comes from the picture department, sometimes it comes from another place. Normally, this is branded everywhere, quicktime files, AAF's, hard drive names, and the like. This is the basis of my naming scheme.
Let's say you're working on The Wizard of Oz. We choose OZ as the abbreviation. (but it could be WOO, Or WIZ, or even some code word, I.E. BH, Blue Harvest for Star Wars)
Thus, my Sound FX files i record or make will begin with OZ followed by a sequential serial number, generally in numerical order, underscore, and then a 2 or 3 word, abbreviated, camelized description. then we might give a second number if it is in a group of files of a sequence.
We then organize this on the finder or drive level first by library, then by show, then by something else, it could be recording session, sound type, or even where we got it from (locale).
So, for instance, if we had a series of wood tearing for the tornado scene a single file name might read:
Our logic: The whole purpose of this name is make it easier to edit with, and make finding files in a session ON THE DUB STAGE easier and more efficient. Also, for the purpose of keeping your library organized. Frankly, a sound is a sound. If you're editing a single door close, it could be named bob'syouruncle36. You'e interested in the sound, not the name. It's the rest of the time, the making sense of it all that, for me at least, means a lot. If you're trying to find the single metallic sound that needs sync fixed in 350 tracks, a short, brief, concise name means a lot.
Every sound is also been ran through Soundminer. Here is where the true library work exists. I tell our assistants and apprentices that are learning, 'imagine you're an editor looking for this sound, how would you find it?' There i will put what the sound is, what it sounds like, how it relates to what it was recorded for, (as in 'Dorothy caught in tornado debris.') the circumstances around the recording, (who was there, where it was at, etc You never know how someone will recall a sound they recorded in the past) and then any details pertaining to the quality of the sound such as microphone type, or if there is extraneous noise. Be sure to check your spelling.
Now, this is my method. This is what works for our team. Go find your own. Everyone has a different method, and it continually evolves, as ours has.
One thing i will say: K.I.S.S. -- Keep It Simple, Stupid. Don't get fancy for the sake of being fancy. You want quick, efficient and easy to understand. While many extras might be 'cool', they tend to get in the way when the chips are down.