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30th December 2007
Old 30th December 2007
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Here's something from Paul White on Reverbs -more music but it kinda applies

PAUL WHITE explains why a great reverb doesn't always make a mix sound better.

Most studio musicians appreciate the importance of reverb in recorded music, but a large number of demos are still spoiled either through over-use or inappropriate use of this crucial effect. Pop music is rarely recorded in a natural acoustic environment, unless you have access to one of the top studios with a really good live room, so what tends to happen is that sounds are recorded in a fairly dry room, then treated with artificial reverberation to make them sound natural. The same is true of electronically generated sounds that have no natural ambience of their own -- they need some added reverberation to make them sound believable. Problems arise, however, when the type and amount of reverberation are wrong.


Take any solo'd track and add reverb to it, and the chances are that it'll sound bigger (in a spatial sense) and more impressive. That's because a solo'd track usually has plenty of space between the sounds. But when the whole mix is playing, there's a danger that reverb can fill all the important spaces that let the detail within the recording shine through. By its very nature, reverb occurs after the sound that caused it, so the effect of too much reverb is to 'smear' percussive events, reducing the contrast between beats and the spaces between those beats. Though the average signal level of a reverb-processed sound may be higher than the untreated signal, the chances are that it'll actually sound less loud with the reverb added, because one of the ways in which we perceive loudness is to subconsciously register the difference in level between peaks and the lower-level sounds that come between them. The less contrast there is, the less loud the peaks sound. (Incidentally, it is possible to make peaks sound even louder by extending their duration slightly, which is why gated reverb sounds so powerful. The high level of reverb stretches percussive sounds, but then it suddenly stops, leaving plenty of contrast with the following quieter sounds.)

"The effect of too much reverb is to 'smear' percussive events, reducing the contrast between beats and the spaces between those beats."

Gated reverb has become something of a cliché -- though you shouldn't let that put you off using it altogether -- but similar results can be obtained by using ambience settings. These are characterised by strong early reflections but very little dense reverb afterwards. Dedicated ambience settings tend to appear only on the better reverb devices, but, providing you have a unit where the relative level of early reflections can be adjusted, you can approximate the effect well enough by setting the ER level to maximum. Pick a bright reverb algorithm with well-defined early reflections, then set a short decay time so that there's minimal 'ring' after the initial sound. These strong early reflections will help strengthen and widen sounds without smearing them excessively; even difficult sounds such as bass drums and bass guitar can sound good with just a touch of ambience added.


Perhaps the biggest dilemma with reverb is that vocals sound great with lots of it, but as soon as you add it, the vocal loses the 'up-front' quality that we expect from a contemporary pop mix. This problem is related to psychoacoustics -- the nearer we are to a sound, the greater the proportion of direct sound we hear. In most environments, nearby sounds tend to seem fairly dry, whereas those at a distance may be more reverberant. Even in a reverberant environment, the perceived level of reverb will be lower for those sounds that are closest, as a greater proportion of direct sound reaches our ears. Distance also tends to dull sound, so for a vocal to sound 'up-front' it needs to be bright and dry -- and these conditions aren't always flattering to a voice.

Fortunately, there are ways to use reverb without losing the required sense of intimacy. One of these is to use a fairly short decay time, again with a high early reflections content. The other way is to place a pre-delay of several tens of milliseconds before the reverb, to provide some separation between the initial dry sound and the ensuing reverberation. Combining these two techniques can work effectively, but you'll still need to keep the reverb level under control. Listen to a selection of good contemporary music mixes and you'll find that many use so little reverb that you don't actually notice it unless you specifically listen for it.

"Because low frequencies take up so much headroom, it's better to remove the low end before the signal gets to the reverb unit input -- which should result in a better signal-to-noise performance."

The quality of the reverb processor being used also makes a huge difference, so save your best processors for vocals and drums, where the differences show up most. With the better processors, adding a lot of reverb doesn't seem to bury the sound in the same way that lots of reverb from a cheap unit does, and you can often get away with a much higher reverb-to-dry ratio before the sound becomes unnaturally muffled. Good reverb quality is particularly evident at short decay times, where lesser units may start to ring or sound unduly coloured. If you have access to a really good reverb unit, you might find that a vocal line sounds more effective treated with a higher level of fairly short reverb than it does with a lower level of a longer reverb.

A potential problem with using a bright-sounding reverb on vocals is that any sibilance in the original performance will already have been exaggerated by any compression that's been used, and once you add a bright reverb it may reach an annoying level. De-essing vocals often results in a lispy quality to the sound, so a kinder solution may be to de-ess the input to the reverb unit and leave the dry vocals as they were. Figure 2 (below) shows how this might be done.


From what's been said so far, you can probably deduce that sparing amounts of bright reverb, or reverb rich in early reflections, will help give a sound presence, width and interest without pushing it to the back of the mix. However, if bright reverbs are chosen for everything in the mix, the contrast element once again gets lost. Classical instruments tend to benefit from more natural reverb treatments, and in most cases that means using quite a lot of HF damping and HF rolloff to simulate a concert hall type of environment. Even in rooms with very hard surfaces, such as stone cathedrals, the reverb can be much less bright than you might expect, mainly due to the air absorption of high frequencies in the large distances between walls.

"Classical instruments tend to benefit from more natural reverb treatments, and in most cases that means using quite a lot of HF damping and HF rolloff to simulate a concert hall type of environment."

Using lots of early reflections can also be a bad idea when processing classical instruments, because when a large ensemble plays in a real concert hall, the early reflections have a tendency to disappear. The reason is quite simple: the pattern of early reflections depends on the position of the performer relative to the nearby walls and other boundaries, but if each performer is in a different position on stage, each will generate a slightly different set of early reflections. When these are all added together, individual reflections tend to become masked by the increased complexity of the reflected sound.


Reverberation is a very powerful effect, without which no studio would be complete, but there are dangers associated with its use. In terms of perspective, excessive use of reverb pushes sounds to the back of the mix, while adding more than the merest hint of reverb to bass sounds clutters up the low end alarmingly. There are occasions when long reverb settings work, but these generally require musical arrangements that leave a lot of space for them to work in.

Adding much in the way of reverb to sustained pad sounds seldom works, as the sustain of the pad hides the reverb, which means that you have to add a lot to make the effect noticeable. As a rule, smoother sounds benefit more from coarse treatments with widely spaced early reflections while percussive sounds need a higher density of reverb -- otherwise the early reflections sound like somebody ripping cloth! Once you've picked an appropriate reverb sound, you then have to decide whether there's enough space in the music to let you use it as an obvious effect, or whether you should add as little as you can to create a convincing sense of space.


Reverb units can tend to emphasise anything that's bassy or muddy in the material being processed, and since most of the energy in a typical pop music mix resides at the low end of the audio spectrum, perhaps this isn't surprising. The problem can be reduced by EQ'ing some of the low end out of the reverb, and the easiest way to do this is to feed the returns through a couple of mixer channels rather than aux returns, so that you can use the channel EQ to apply bass cut. However, this isn't actually the best way to do the job. Because low frequencies take up so much headroom, it's better to remove the low end before the signal gets to the reverb unit input -- which should result in a better signal-to-noise performance. Any type of equaliser patched before the reverb input will do the job, but the high-pass side-chain filters on a noise gate such as the Drawmer DS201 (set to Key Listen mode) are particularly good for this purpose because of their steep 12dB/octave slope. Using these, it's possible to almost surgically remove the low end without changing the mid and high frequencies in any obvious way. Figure 1 shows a suitable patch for accomplishing this.

Thread Starter
30th December 2007
Old 30th December 2007
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Interesting Reverb data on various surfaces...

Wallace Clement Sabine (1868-1919)

Sabine's Reverberation Formula
Wallace Clement Sabine was a pioneer in architectural acoustics. A century ago he started experiments in the Fogg lecture room at Harvard, to investigate the impact of absorption on the reverberation time. It was on the 29th of October 1898 that he discovered the type of relation between these quantities. Sabine derived an expression for the duration T of the residual sound to decay below the audible intensity, starting from a 1,000,000 times higher initial intensity:

T = 0.161 V/A

where V is the room volume in cubic meters, and A is the total absorption in square meters. Sabine's reverberation formula has been applied successfully for many years to determine material absorption coefficients by means of reverberation rooms. Keeping in mind some conditions with regard to the sound field diffusion and the value of A, Sabine's formula is still widely accepted as a very useful estimation method for the reverberation time in rooms.

Sabin as Unit of Sound Absorption
The unit of sound absorption is square meter, referring to the area of open window. This unit stems from the fact that sound energy travelling toward an open window in a room will not be reflected at all, but completely disappear in the open air outside. The effect would be the same if the open window would be replaced with 100 % absorbing material of the same dimensions.

Therefore, 1 square meter of 100 % absorbing material has an absorption of 1 square meter of open window. In honor of W.C. Sabine, the unit of absorption is also named sabin or metric sabin. However, these units are used not very often. One sabin is the absorption of one square foot of open window, and one metric sabin is the absorption of one square meter of open window.

Sabine Units of Common Materials (Given Per Square Foot or Per Unit)
125Hz 250Hz 500Hz 1kHz 2kHz 4kHz

Carpet - heavy on concrete
0.02 0.06 0.14 0.37 0.60 0.65

Carpet - heavy on 40oz hair felt
0.08 0.24 0.57 0.69 0.71 0.73

Carpet - heavy with latex backin on foam or 40hz weave
0.08 0.27 0.39 0.34 0.48 0.63

Carpet- outdoor/indoor
0.01 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.45 0.65

Wood Floor
0.15 0.11 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.07

Concrete Floor
0.01 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.02 0.02

Linoleum, Asphalt-tile, or cork tile on concrete
0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02

Foam backed carpet on concrete
0.05 0.16 0.44 0.70 0.60 0.40

Heavy carpet + heavy foam underlay on concrete
0.15 0.25 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80

Vinyl flooring
0.03 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.05

Gypsum board: 1/2" on 2 x 4s, 16" on centers (plasterboard)
0.29 0.10 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.09

9mm Plasterboard over 20mm air gap
0.30 0.2 0.15 0.05 0.05 0.05

Plaster, gypsum or lime smooth finish on tile or brick
0.013 0.015 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

Plaster: gypsum or lime, smooth finish on lath
0.14 0.10 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03

Concrete Block, course
0.36 0.44 0.31 0.29 0.39 0.25

Concrete Block, painted
0.10 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.08

Plaster on brick
0.013 0.015 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

0.05 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.05

Owens-Corning Frescor, painted, 5/8" thick Mounting 7 Drop Ceiling
0.69 0.86 0.68 0.87 0.90 0.81

Drapes cotton 14oz/sq yd
- draped to 7/8 area
0.03 0.12 0.15 0.27 0.37 0.42
- draped to 3/4 area
0.04 0.23 0.40 0.57 0.53 0.40
- draped to 1/2 area
0.07 0.37 0.49 0.81 0.65 0.54

Cotton drapes draped to half area. 15oz/sq yd
0.07 0.37 0.49 0.81 0.65 0.54

Drapes medium velor, 18oz sq yd draped to 1/2 area
0.14 0.35 0.55 0.72 0.70 0.65

Acoustical tile, average 1/2" thick
0.07 0.21 0.66 0.75 0.62 0.49

Acoustical tile, average 3/4" thick
0.09 0.28 0.78 0.84 0.73 0.64

50mm Acoustic Foam
0.08 0.25 0.60 0.90 0.95 0.90

100mm Acoustic Foam
0.20 0.70 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99

50mm Mineral Wool (Med Density)
0.20 0.45 0.70 0.80 0.80 0.80

Plate glass
0.18 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02

6mm glass
0.10 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02

Window glass
0.35 0.25 0.18 0.12 0.07 0.04

Breeze block
0.25 0.40 0.60 0.50 0.75 0.50

LF panel absorber
0.28 0.22 0.17 0.09 0.10 0.11

Perforated Helmholz absorber, 4-inch depth, mineral wool damping, 0.79% perforation.
0.40 0.840 0.40 0.160 0.140 0.12

Perforated Helmholz absorber,8-inch depth, mineral wool damping, 0.79% perforation.
0.98 0.88 0.52 0.21 0.16 0.14

Broad-band absorber, 1-inch fibreglass slab at mouth of 7-inch deep cavity
0.67 0.98 0.98 0.93 0.98 0.96

Padded seat (unoccupied)
0.10 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.40 0.30

College students informally dressed seated in tablet arm chairs (per person)
2.5 2.9 5.0 5.2 5.0

Audience seated, depending on spacing and upholstry of seats (per person)
2.5 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 4.5

Audience seated, depending on spacing and upholstry of seats (per person)
4.0 5.0 5.5 6.5 7.0 7.0

thought this might be fun to learn about...

30th December 2007
Old 30th December 2007
Lives for gear
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Joined: Jun 2006
Location: NYC
Posts: 1,385

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I want to buy your book!

Georgia Rocks!

Seriously, I've read so much of this stuff and I can't say enough "thanks." You've compiled so much information you should consider writing a book. Georiga's Audio Post Guide and Desk Reference.

I'd buy it. Aside from other websites, I've only seen a few books related to the topic.
Thread Starter
25th January 2008
Old 25th January 2008
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Posts: 1,589
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V V T R and Soundmaster notes:

here's some info about Soundmaster and VVTR.. Also Soundmaster now has a VVTR mode, a VVTR loose mode and a VVTR 1 frame mode. iF you have a video file that the frame edges are not perfect, contact soundmaster and they should be able to hook you up with the new settings...

Just a quick note to summarise the whole situation with respect to
VirtualVTR Pro, Kona3 and Soundmaster on Film Mix Stages,
particularly running 23.98 @ 29.97 configurations.

We have worked with Soundmaster and AJA over the last few weeks to
put into place a setup which covers pretty much all the bases you
will meet on a mix stage, ensuring frame accuracy and tight lock,
even when cross locking 23.98 material to an otherwise 29.97 world.

AJA Have created a beta version of a new Kona3 driver with a special
function we can call to precisely determine the frame on the air,
even when operating in 3:2 pull up or with cross locked timecode.
This driver along with the latest VirtualVTR Pro seems to work very

The new Kona3 driver should be available on request to AJA, the one
we are using is:

NOTE: This is designed as a comprehensive explanation of the
technical considerations surrounding the use of VirtualVTR Pro on a
mix stage, with AJA Kona3, and Soundmaster ION, playing a variety of
video formats with the option of 23.98 to 29.97 cross locking. Its a
technical guide for ENGINEERS, not a user guide. Please do not
reproduce this information (some is proprietary) for the time being.

- QuickTime, VirtualVTR Pro and Kona operate in either a 'scheduled'
or 'unscheduled' video playback mode depending on a number of factors
which are determined as the movie opens. Scheduled mode prepares 30
frames in advance and gives them a target 'delivery' time to air to
be handled by the Kona driver, whilst Unscheduled mode has QuickTime
sending out 1 frame at a time through the software/hardware pipeline.

- In unscheduled mode, in some cases, there can be a situation where
the current time reported by quicktime is slightly offset from the
actual frame which is on air (typically less than a frame, but can be
as much as a frame). Also, in some cases the QuickTime perception of
time may be working on a frame edge offset from the real frame edge.
This can lead to rounding errors, once again affecting overall sync.
Whilst it is still possible to get good results in unscheduled mode,
there is a greater possibility for occasional sync mis-locks, and so
wherever possible, Scheduled mode is preferred. In Unscheduled mode
you will need to determine and enter the 'sync correction' parameter
in VirtualVTR for the codec in use, compensating for codec, video
hardware and then projector latencies.

- In Scheduled mode, QuickTime prepares a series of frames in
advance, and tells Kona when each frame belongs on the air. This has
the added benefit of having a cache of frames ready in the driver and
can make for smoother playback with challenging media formats like
DVCProHD, particularly where the CPU is working hard. In theory if
we ask QuickTime for the current time, it will tell us, and in theory
the frame targeted for that time *should* be on the air. However, in
practice the slewing process used by Soundmaster will 'slip' the sync
between 'proposed time' and 'actual time' for the delivery of the
frames (not least because variations in speed during slew will put
the QuickTime timeline frame edge out of sync with the genlock edge).
Consequently it is not safe to 'take Quicktime's word for it' when
reporting timecode back to the Soundmaster. Fortunately AJA have
provided a mechanism which allows us to bypass or correct QuickTime's
own perception of time, and replace it with a literal report of which
frame has actually 'just left the building'. This offers superbly
accurate sync. In Scheduled mode the 'sync correction' parameter in
VirtualVTR is theoretically zero, but you may need to enter a value
to compensate for projector latencies.

There are a number of factors which determine whether QuickTime
selects Scheduled or Unscheduled mode when opening a movie.
Essentially QuickTime builds a 'codec calling chain' as it opens a
file, figuring out what steps are required to get from the Movie file
(in a compressed format typically, at a certain size) across to the
Video Output (which might expect uncompressed frames, at a specific
size). QuickTime asks the Video card driver what format of video it
expects. If mismatches exist between source and destination, then
QuickTime has to put processes into the calling pipeline to correct
for these. Typically, if QuickTime includes conversion processes, it
will choose Unscheduled mode of playback. If there are no
mismatches, it will choose Scheduled mode. So, then simplest way to
ensure scheduled mode is to make sure your Sound movie matches the
basic format requirements of the Video card driver (eg. uncompressed
8-bit, full frame size).

As we are aware in practice, it is rare to see a movie in
uncompressed format arrive on a mix stage, and fortunately, there are
still lots of configurations where things dont match 1:1 and we can
still get scheduled playback. For example - The Kona driver natively
expects 8 or 10 bit uncompressed Video at 720x576, or 720x486 (SD) or
1920x1080, 1280x720 (HD). However, it *also* supports a range of
other codecs and sizes *natively* which means that QuickTime doesn't
have to install a pipeline processor, and scheduled mode can work.
The other parameters Kona will accept include

- 720x486, 720x576, 1920x1080, 1280x960 (standard sizes)
- 720x480 frame size (particularly for DV-NTSC video frames which use
this size - it will center the picture, not stretch)
- 1440/1280x1080 frame size (particularly for DVCProHD 1080 video
frames which natively this size - it will stretch the picture)
- 960x720 frame size (particularly for DVCProHD 720 video frames
which natively this size - it will stretch the picture)
- 640 x 480 (not sure whether it stretches or centers)
- 320 x 240 and some other offline RT sizes (stretches)
- 8 and 10 but 2vuy or v210 (standard uncompressed codecs)
- DV25, DV50, DVCProHD
- MotionJPEG, PhotoJPEG
- Avid Meridien
- IMX (??? not certain of this)
- Some other uncompressed codecs with color components in different

If you are using a frame size which doesn't match, or a codec which
doesn't match, then its likely playback will be unscheduled.
VirtualVTR Pro indicated Scheduled or Unscheduled playback using a
Green or Red 'Disk' LED which shows the number of cached frames (this
is always zero in the case of unscheduled playback).

- VirtualVTR Pro superimpose Graphics buffer.
VirtualVTR Pro also has the option of inserting a video frame buffer
between QuickTime and the Kona, where graphics can be superimposed
(or it can be used as a conversion compatibility layer). Like any
other pipeline processor, this causes the chain to be built in
unscheduled mode. However for some more exotic codecs, like H264,
HDV, DNxHD and MPEG2, it may be necessary to use the Graphics buffer
as a translation layer, and live with unscheduled mode. These codecs
are interframe and typically long GOP which makes it almost
impossible to deliver them directly to the Kona card without
processing. VirtualVTR Pro can allow you to play these formats direct
to air, but you will have to use the Graphics overlay buffer. The
other option is to convert the format to DVCProHD or medium Q
PhotoJPEG before opening in VVTR Pro (this technique *would* allow
Scheduled mode, but takes time before you can work).

- Making Scheduled Mode Sync accurate
As described, Scheduled mode is good, but we must get data from the
Kona card not from QuickTime if we are to report time accurately. In
regular framerate=timecode modes, we can simply ask the Kona every
timecode frame, which video frame is on the air. This gives very
accurate results. However there are times when Kona cannot return
this information, particularly during slewing (during which time QT
operates in unscheduled mode), also, when cross locking (playing
23.98 picture with a 29.97 timecode - Soundmaster locked to NTSC),
the information from Kona would not correspond directly with the
timecode and Soundmaster reference, so we use a variation technique,
called XCheck (in VVTR Pro prefs).

Essentially, the prefs you need are ' Query VOut for Time' - to make
VirtualVTR Pro use the Kona representation of Time during Scheduled
playback. In Unscheduled playback this is ignored. Also, the
'XCheck' additional mode uses a more advanced call, only available in
Kona3.3+ which makes the Query Vout mode work properly when cross
locked. It should be safe to leave both these options turned ON at
all times and it will use them when available, or defer to other
techniques when not. There is one exception to this rule - if your
synchroniser expects to watch the 9-pin 'Servo Lock' status flag
(Soundmaster does not, I believe) then you will find that the Servo
Lock flag never comes on in a situation where Query VOut is selected,
but scheduled mode is not used (since we are waiting for the
Scheduled mode to settle *before* we enable servo Lock).

- 24, 30 and Pull Down considerations
VirtualVTR Pro has a 0.1% pull down option which will automatically
conform a movie when opened from 24 or 30 FPS to 23.98 or 29.97 FPS.
Note that it does NOT process the sound, so after pull down you must
ignore the embedded audio in VirtualVTR Pro since it will be out of
sync. If you prefer other pre-processing QT conform tools exist
(cinema tools ?). Normally the VirtualVTR Pro conform will be non
destructive - ie. if you close the movie it will rever to 24/30 FPS.
However if you TIMESTAMP the movie whilst it is open and pulled down,
this will permanently conform the movie file to the pulled down rate.
A very useful tool in VirtualVTR Pro is the 'Get Info' in the bin -
select this when a movie is closed, and you will see the Movie and
Media Timescale and the frame duration values - these are the
fundamental QuickTime time units which the movie is built with. Most
common will be 2500/2500/100 for a PAL movie, 2997/2997/100 for an
NTSC movie, and 23976/23976/1000 for a 'perfect' 23.98 movie. You
might see the first parameter set to 600 which is a common error
caused by QuickTime player - however if you have the VVTR Pref
'Correct Movie Timescale' set, this will be corrected as the movie
opens, to match the second parameter. The first parameter is used to
locate VVTR frame by frame, so its quite important that it
corresponds to the actual frames. You might see 24/24/1 for a 24 fps
movie, 25/25/1 for PAL or even things with 80 as the duration
(instead of 1, 100, or 1000). This is where you should take care.
Values like 2398/2398/80 are NOT accurate enough because of rounding
errors (whereas 23976/23976/800 is), and the 80 duration movie (which
might be something like an NTSC export from a 24 FPS movie), is
likely to have a long term sync drift. In particular when exporting
from a Film Composer (24 FPS) it is VITAL that the user does NOT try
to 'create' a 29.97 or a 23.98 movie- this will most likely cause the
situation described due to inaccuracies. Instead the FilmComposer
should output a true 24 or 30 FPS movie, and VVTR Pro will pull it
down during playback.

- Playing 24 FPS SD movies Progressive on a projector.
As we all know, there is no 24 FPS standard definition video mode.
However you will all have come across 24 FPS SD Quicktime movies,
from Avid Film Composer, or Final Cut Pro (typically Avid Meriden
format or DV format). On a film Mix stage there is a great desire to
preserve the 'true to film' 24 FPS progressive scan material and
project it in this format without corrupting the integrity with the
traditional 3:2 pull up and interlacing of the picture. Fortunately,
AJA have again come to the rescue, and Kona3 has a 24 FPS SD native
display mode, and a hardware upconvertor which allows you to play a
24 FPS Avid (or DV) Movie in fully Scheduled mode, with Kona
upconverting to 1080 24p (or 23.98p) on the HD-SDI output. This
offers your customer a 24p Progressive screening of their QuickTime
movies, which is as close to mixing against film as you are going to
get these days. This can all be done, even on a stage which uses NTSC
sync and 29.97 FPS Timecode to the Soundmaster (you will require a
coherent NTSC and TriLevel sync generator).

VirtualVTR Pro and Kona offer the most flexible playback platform for
Mix Stages, supporting most common desktop video formats natively
with no conversion.

Clearly there is alot of information in this document, which we have
chosen to share with you so you are fully educated. However in
practice users of VirtualVTR Pro do NOT need to know all this:

You may want to define a fixed set of video formats which you are
willing to accept from your customers (just like you do with the
linear decks you have available), and then define a set of prefs for
your operators to match each incoming format. You can always expand
your list of accepted formats over time. In your specification you
should clearly define the video frame size and the codec.

Just like your users don't understand the technical details of HDCam
tape, they do know which machine to put it into, and which buttons
to press. So it is with VirtualVTR Pro - define some standards for
your customers and have a fixed user process for dealing with each
standard. In these times where there are hundreds of format
variations it's vital to nail it down to some extent. We have done
everything possible to ensure that the widest range of movie formats
will play, without conversion, and with accurate sync, but there are
limits to what is possible and this is where you must create some
boundaries. In most cases the last resort is to convert (and perhaps
scale) the movie with QuickTime player into one of the supported
formats, and in general this will allow an almost unlimited range of
incoming formats.

Our system now works with "pro" and "not so pro" video files.

Thread Starter
26th January 2008
Old 26th January 2008
georgia's Avatar
Joined: Dec 2006
Location: NY NY
Posts: 1,589
My Recordings/Credits

Thread Starter
georgia is offline
freq harmonics stuff.... good for cleaning up dialogue sometimes

Determining the Harmonic Frequencies

speed = frequency • wavelength
frequency = speed/wavelength
f2 = v / 2

speed = frequency • wavelength
frequency = speed/wavelength
f3 = v / 3

The frequency of the third harmonic is three times the frequency of the first harmonic. The frequency of the nth harmonic is n times the frequency of the first harmonic.

fn = n • f1

The inverse of this pattern exists for the wavelength values of the harmonics. The wavelength of the second harmonic is one-half (1/2) the wavelength of the first harmonic.

The wavelength of the third harmonic is one-third (1/3) the wavelength of the first harmonic.

And the wavelength of the nth harmonic is one-nth (1/n) the wavelength of the first harmonic.

n = (1/n) • 1

Thread Starter
4th March 2008
Old 4th March 2008
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Joined: Dec 2006
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From Matt at Digidesign. Concerning Lost Files. Very cool!

I feel your pain. I had a very similar problem recently. I backed up a session then put it in the Trash and Emptied and then realized I had audio files in that session folder that were from a different session. Since I had used Save Session Copy In to do the backup, those files weren't copied. So they were gone. Or so I thought.
First and most important thing: Do NOT use the hard disk for anything!! Don't even launch Pro Tools with the thing connected. Pro Tools may very well update the .ddb file on that drive which could overwrite important data. Just leave it unconnected until you are ready to attempt recovery, which I will describe next.

You will need three programs (well, two actually, but a text editor makes life simpler):
1. Terminal (found in your Applications:Utilities folder)
2. HexEdit (freeware)
3. TextEdit (in your Apps folder) or, my favorite, TextEdit (by Haxial)
You will also need an extra hard disk or two, and a Pro Tools system capable of playing the same audio files you are trying to recover (i.e.: if you're trying to get back 96kHz files, you need a 002 or HD rig.) For simplicity's sake we're going to refer to your precious hard disk as the Source Disk and the extra hard disks as your Destination Disk(s).
Here's what you're going to do
1. Read raw data off of the hard disk, 1GB at a time, to a second hard disk.
2. Attach audio file wrapper data to each raw data file. Do this THREE times if you are trying to recover 24-bit audio data. Do it TWICE if you're recovering 16-bit data. I'll explain.
3. Import the new audio files into Pro Tools.
4. Manually comb through the audio files in Pro Tools to find the data you want. This part of the process may take quite a while and test your patience, but if the data is really important, you'll do it.
Some caveats (in no particular order)
1. This is going to take time. Quite a bit of time. If you need this done quickly, and you're getting paid, it might be better to send it to a data recovery company and pay big $$. That's up to you.
2. This is going to take up a lot of disk space. The bigger the hard disk you are trying to recover, the more space you'll eventually need. As a rule of thumb, figure on 4x the amount of disk space from the original drive. If you don't have this much extra space, you can do it in chunks, but some of the time-saving techniques won't be as useful.
3. You need to know what type of audio files you're looking for. File format, sample rate and bit depth. If you are trying to recover a whole bunch of different file types or you don't know the types, you're in for a REALLY LONG HAUL. You'll basically have to repeat this entire procedure for each file type. If you're willing to do that you must have some really important audio files to recover. Good luck.
4. Again (worth repeating), do NOT write to your affected disk drive until you have recovered your audio or given up. This is really important. Since you emptied the trash, the computer doesn't know where those audio files are and could write over them without warning if you save something to that disk.
How to do it
1. Connect your Source and Destination Disks to your computer.
2. Boot up.
3. Launch Terminal.
4. In Terminal type su. Enter your password. You're now in superuser mode. Be careful.
Now you need to find out some info via unix:
5. In Terminal type df. This will show the mount point of your drives. On far right is the name of the disk; e.g. /Volumes/MyDiskName. On far left is "unix device mount point", e.g. /dev/disk1s9. 1 is the disk number (e.g. 1st disk found since booting). 9 is the partition number.
6. Find your disk in this list by the name and note down the mount point. This is how you will tell unix where to read raw data from.
Here goes the main recovery effort. I suggest you read ahead before you actually type this stuff.
7. In Terminal type dd if=/dev/rdisk1s9 of=/Volumes/MyDestinationDisk/01 count=2m
Okay, what's all this about?
dd This is a unix command that allows raw data reading/writing.
if= Tells dd command that this is the Input File.
/dev/rdisk1s9 This is your mount point that you found in step 5. The numbers will probably be different on your system. The r is added in to tell dd that you want to do a raw disk read. The r is very important!
of= Tells dd command that this is the Output File.
/Volumes/MyDestinationDisk/01 Here's where you need to put in your Destination Disk name. Keep the /Volumes/ part since this is the same on all OS X systems and then type the name of the hard disk volume you want to write to. Add a slash after the name and then type a file name for the new raw data file you're going to create. I use numbers, like 01 since this command will be executed many times. Each time I increase this file number by 1 to keep things organized. (Unix scripters will see opportunity for automation here but doing it manually gives the same results.)
count=2m This tells dd how much data you want to read. 2m=1GB. (Unix deals in 512 Kilobyte chunks.)
8. If this all looks fine and dandy to you, press Enter. You won't see much going on but if you look at your drive access lights you'll see that reads and writes are occuring.
Now you may be wondering how unix knows which 1GB of data to read off of your drive? Simple. It just reads the first 1GB of data. So how do you get it to read the 2nd GB? or the 3rd? Or the 49th? Easy. Just add an additional command at the end of the dd line that says skip=2m. This tells dd to start reading raw data 1GB from the beginning of the disk. You'd use this to create your second raw data file. Your third file would need skip=4m added to it. The fourth will need skip=6m. Etc. A handy equation for this is of=N skip=(N*2-2)m. I.e.: Your Output File number is N and the number in the skip part is N*2 - 2.
So your second raw data recovery will look like:
dd if=/dev/rdisk1s9 of=/Volumes/MyDestinationDisk/02 count=2m skip=2m
Your third raw data recovery will look like:
dd if=/dev/rdisk1s9 of=/Volumes/MyDestinationDisk/03 count=2m skip=4m
Your fourth raw data recovery will look like:
dd if=/dev/rdisk1s9 of=/Volumes/MyDestinationDisk/04 count=2m skip=6m
And so on. Until you've recovered all your data or run out of disk space on Destination Disk. If you have to stop in the middle, make note of where you left off and DISCONNECT your Source Disk.
How to speed up the raw data recovery process.
You may have noticed that each 1GB of data takes a long time to recover. I don't suggest you use your computer for any other tasks during this process so you probably want to do this stuff late at night or whenever the computer is not in use. But you don't want to be there babysitting the thing all night long. There's a solution. You can type commands into unix one after another if you seperate them with a semicolon. That's what I use TextEdit for. It's much easier to copy and paste a whole bunch of those commands into TextEdit, then scroll through and change the Output File names (the numbers) and the skip commands. Then you can copy and paste out of TextEdit back into Terminal. You'll end up with something like this:
dd if=/dev/rdisk1s9 of=/Volumes/MyDestinationDisk/01 count=2m; dd if=/dev/rdisk1s9 of=/Volumes/MyDestinationDisk/02 count=2m skip=2m; dd if=/dev/rdisk1s9 of=/Volumes/MyDestinationDisk/03 count=2m skip=4m; dd if=/dev/rdisk1s9 of=/Volumes/MyDestinationDisk/04 count=2m skip=6m; etc.
I find that resizing the TextEdit window so that one dd command fits perfectly on a line also helps in making the edits correctly.
Be careful! This is a powerful technique for getting things done in a big batch, but if you make a small typing error you can do disastrous things to your hard disks. Or you can accidentally write each new raw data file over the previous one, which means you won't really know what you recovered and you'll have to start over. If you know how to write shell scripts in unix, I'm sure you'll be automating this whole process. I found it more satisfying to be able to see each and every command written out before I let them loose on my system.
Also, don't forget that you need to do the superuser mode change each time you launch Terminal. And you should recheck the df command to make sure the mount points didn't change (they can every time the system boots.)
You're one-third of the way there.
The next step is to add the audio file wrappers so you can import these new raw data files into Pro Tools, but first you need to create the wrapper files. There are two files to make a wrapper, one that comes first, then your raw data, then a second wrapper. I'll call these wrappers header and footer. You'll use the same footer for each raw data file, but you'll need to create three headers for each raw data file. Why? Pro Tools records 24-bit data. 24-bit data is broken up into three 8-bit chunks. Since you recovered raw data, you don't know what the right ordering of the three chunks. The only way to make sure you can get all audio data back is to create three versions of each raw data file, each version being a different ordering of the 8-bit chunks. So you'll need to create three header files, the second one being 1 byte longer than the first, and the third being 2 bytes longer than the first. When you attach the raw data to each of these, the byte ordering will start in each of the three possible places allowing you to find all the audio data that may be in the raw files. Sounds a little complicated but it's really not.
Creating header and footer files
1. Disconnect your precious Source Disk!!!
2. Launch Pro Tools.
3. Create a session in the same file format, sample rate and bit depth as the data you're trying to recover. If you don't know, you'll have to create headers and footers for each file type and do everything from here on over and over until you find your data. If this is your situation, think long and hard about how important those files are. Unless you have original recordings of spacealiens I suggest you forget trying to recover and re-record stuff. If you DID have original recordings of spacealiens and you didn't make a backup copy immediately then I suggest you sell your computer and get a job in a less intellectually demanding field. That said, mistakes happen. I made such a mistake. Luckily, I remembered the file type, sample rate, bit depth and even the number of channels of what I was looking for. So I pressed on.
4. Make a selection on your timeline that will create an audio file 1GB in size.
5. Press Option-Shift-3 to create a blank audio file with your selection.
6. You'll need to do this several times to zero in on the exact time needed to create a 1GB file. I'm not sure how exact you have to be but I got it to the exact file size through trial and error. Come to think of it, it's probably better to have a little bigger file than exactly 1GB because the headers and footers will take a little space. Oh well. My recovery worked well. I got back over 99% of my lost data (about 4 hours worth) and that was good enough for me.
7. Quit Pro Tools once you have your 1GB audio file. Name that file something like 1GBAudioFile.
8. Now launch HexEdit.
9. Open 1GBAudioFile in HexEdit. A sea of numbers will fill the window. Don't flinch.
10. HexEdit shows the raw hex data of the open file on the left side and the "human readable" version on the right. Sometimes you can make out words on the right side, but for audio data it just looks like garbage. Scroll down through the data until you see a large amount of zeroes that goes on forever. This is the audio data. Since you created a blank audio file, it's just zeroes in there, so it's easy to see where it begins and ends.
11. Find the beginning of the audio data.
12. Copy all the data from just before the audio data all the way to the beginning of the file.
13. Create a new file in HexEdit and copy this data into it.
14. Name this file "HeaderA".
15. In HeaderA file, copy and paste a single 00 to the end of the file.
16. Name this file "HeaderB".
17. In HeaderB file, copy and paste a single 00 to the end of the file.
18. Name this file "HeaderC". You now have three header files, each one byte longer than the previous one. Now for the footer.
19. Find the end of the audio data in the original 1GBAudioFile. It's the where the zeros all end and you get a few non-zero numbers showing up. There will be more zeros after this (where the waveform drawing data is stored) so make sure you scroll in far enough to get the end of actual audio data. This could take a while since you're looking at A LOT of data.
20. Copy all the data from the end of the audio data to the end of the file.
21. Create a new file and copy this data into it.
22. Name this file "Footer".
23. Quit HexEdit.
24. Eat something, take a break.
25. Copy the three Header and one Footer files into the same folder with your raw audio data files.
26. Launch Terminal.
27. Type cd and then drag the folder containing your raw audio files into the Terminal window. It will autofill the pathname for you. Hit Enter. Now you are in the same directory (folder) as your raw audio files so commands will look for files in this directory.
28. Type cat HeaderA 01 Footer > 01A; cat HeaderB 01 Footer > 01B; cat HeaderC 01 Footer > 01C This is three commands in a row (note the semicolons.) Each one says concatenate file HeaderA then file 01 then file Footer in that order into a new file called 01A. Then do the same for B, then C. So you now have three copies of your raw data file with the audio file wrappers on them. They are now ready to be imported into Pro Tools.
29. Repeat step 28 for every raw data file you recovered. You can queue up a lot of these commands with semicolons just like you did with the dd command earlier, as long as you have the disk space. As you can now see, you'll have three more 1GB files on your drive for each 1GB raw data file, making 4GB of data. This is where the 4x space requirement comes from. If you're doing an 80GB drive, you'll eventually need 320GB of space to check every bit of space on the disk for audio (no pun intended.) Breaking it up into smaller chunks, like doing 10GB of a time might be necessary if you don't have lots of free disk space. And remember, don't use your original precious hard disk!! Don't even think about writing to it until you are completely done recovering data from it.
30. If you are trying to recover 16-bit data, then you only need to create two copies of each raw data file. There are only two bytes of 8 bits each in this case.
The moment of truth
You have three 1GB files for each 1GB of space on your original disk. Now you need to put them in Pro Tools and start listening to them and looking at them to identify audio data and save it.
1. Launch Pro Tools.
2. Create a new session at the same sample rate, bit depth, format as your recovered data.
3. Import files 01A, 01B and 01C to Audio Tracks.
4. Let the waveforms redraw. If they don't automatically redraw, select them in the Region Bin and force the redraw.
5. You are now looking at the the first 1GB of data from your drive, presented with three different byte orderings. You will probably see large regions of what looks like solid full code noise (looks like a brick when zoomed out). Interspersed with these bricks you'll hopefully see what looks like regular audio.
6. Turn down your speakers!!! You're going to be hearing some unpleasant noises coming from your system. Do not use headphones.
7. Solo one of the tracks and start playing the parts that look like actual audio data. If it sounds right, then go ahead and select and delete the regions on the other two tracks that are in the same place as the good audio data. You're deleting what is the same data as the good stuff, just shifted one or two bits so what should be the bottom 8 bits of your audio is now the top 8 bits or something like that. Go ahead and listen to some of it. Depending on the original material, there may be some interesting stuff in there especially if you like noise and distortion.
8. Repeat step 7 for each of the three tracks until you've gotten rid of all the stuff that you know is junk. You'll be left with mostly real audio and probably some unknown sections that don't appear to have audio on them in any of the tracks. Listen to the unknown stuff and determine if it's of any value. Most likely it's junk.
9. Repeat it all with the each and every file you recovered and created.
10. You may have noticed while going through the audio that some stuff will get cut off at the end of a file and then pick up at the beginning of the next one. This is helpful so you can edit stuff back together. You'll also notice that you've lost all meaningful timing relationships between tracks that were recorded at the same time, or edited together later. You'll have to reassemble your session manually. This may sound nightmarish, but if this data is really that important to recover and you've come this far, you can probably recreate the session even better than you did originally. Good luck.

The End

Thread Starter
10th April 2008
Old 10th April 2008
georgia's Avatar
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Some Tsch Specs for Audio for your consideration

HD Technical Requirements for High Definition Programming


Audio program material shall be produced using current industry standards and accepted norms. The audio portion of the master and source audio and videotapes must be produced so that no noise, static, dropouts or extraneous distortion is recorded in the audio.

Program audio must reflect reference tone level. Audio levels must be consistent throughout the program.

2.1 Stereo (LPCM) Programs

2.1.1 Phasing

Stereo audio must be fully mono compatible, i.e. the audio channels must be in the proper phase. NOTE: Full Mono compatibility means that when the left and right stereo channels are actively combined to mono there is no discernible change in audio level or fidelity.

Full mix and M & E audio tracks should be phase coherent (synchronized) and level matched to prevent difficulty editing between these tracks, as necessary.

2.1.2 Sound to Video Synchronization (Lip-synchronization)

The relative timing of sound to video should not exhibit any perceptible error. Sound should not lead or lag the vision by more than 10ms. This synchronization must be achieved at the last point at which the program supplier, or their facility provider, has control of the signal.

2.1.3 Headroom

Transmission limiters clip at +8 dB. For broadcast stereo tracks, transient audio peaks must not exceed +8 dB above reference tone when measured on an audio meter using the "True-peak" ballistic set (0 ms rise, 200 ms fall). For 5.1 surround mixes, audio peaks may rise as high as +17 dBm (-3 dBfs). When mastering to a digital format and/or using an Absolute Scale or Peak meter, where "0" is at the top of the scale and reference tone is at -20 dBfs, broadcast stereo tracks should peak at no more than -12 dBfs.

2.1.4 Audio compression:

Program audio should have good dynamic range, within the parameters listed above, but not be overly dynamic. While some compression may be needed to control the dynamic range of the program audio, excessive audio compression of the final mix should be avoided as this reduces the perception of audio quality by the listener.

2.2 Surround Programs

2.2.1 Formats

5.1, 5.0 or LCRS mixes are permitted. Surround English Fullmix (regardless of configuration (5.1, 5.0, etc) shall be expressed as Dolby 'E' on ch3/4 of HDCAM master.

2.2.2 Documentation

An Audio Program Data Sheet shall be delivered with the master tape. (See accompanying example)

2.2.3 20bit Dolby E (6 channel)

Valid metadata in the Dolby 'E' stream for all contribution/transmission parameters is mandatory.

Timecode shall be present in the bit stream, reflecting picture master.

The Dolby E stream shall be formatted such that the program is in sync following Dolby 'E' decoding using a DP572 or equivalent.

Note: One frame of audio delay is incurred for both Dolby E encoding and decoding. Program audio that is advanced two frames relative to picture prior to Dolby E encoding will therefore be advanced one frame as it is recorded to the HDCAM master. Following normal playback, the Dolby E decode cycle will delay one additional frame, bringing the program back into sync.

Maximum permissible audio peaks in a 5.1 or 5.0 soundtrack shall be -3dBFS (+17dBm)

Although the Max dynamic range (max. peaks) for 5.1 channel mixes is considerably higher than for Stereo-only LPCM mixes, it is understood that many 5.1 mixes will have a dynamics structure which more closely resembles a -10dBFS stereo mix in order to facilitate the simple creation of an Lt/Rt fold-down mix.

Regardless of the gain structure of a 5.x channel surround mix, it is crucial that the supplied DIALNORM value accurately reflects the Leq (A) of program dialogue.

2.2.4 Stereo English Full-mix (LPCM, conventional stereo digital)

This shall be recorded on channels 1 and 2 of the HDCAM master tape and may be used for screening and/or Standard Definition Transmission.

This mix shall be derived from the 5.x channel surround mix. i.e. "Fold-down" of the 5.1 or 5.0 mix to LCRS or Stereo (L/R).

This stereo mix should be expressed as Dolby Surround (Lt/Rt) whenever possible, or Lo/Ro if Dolby Surround encoding is not available. Tape labeling and slate information shall reflect the nature of channels 1 and 2 (either Lt/Rt or Lo/Ro). In either case (Dolby Stereo or not), the LPCM stereo Full-mix shall obey the conventional specifications for audio delivery (e.g. Max peaks to 8dB over ref.).

2.3 Channel Allocations

All HDCAM masters should have the following audio channel allocations:


Channel 1 - Program left (Lt or Lo)
Channel 2 - Program right (Rt or Ro)
Channel 3 - Dolby E
Channel 4 - Dolby E
Address Track - SMPTE drop frame time code


Channel 1 - Program left (Lt or Lo)
Channel 2 - Program right (Rt or Ro)
Channel 3 - M&E left
Channel 4 - M&E right

*If the stereo program is Dolby Surround encoded (Lt/Rt), then any stereo M&E mix

(where applicable) shall also be expressed as Lt/Rt.

Address Track - SMPTE drop frame time code

Dolby E Mastering Information

Date Program Start Time
Program Title Episode# or Sub Title
Producer Director
Post Sound Facility Mix Engineer

Dolby E Formatting
Sampling Frequency ? 48 kHz (mandatory)
Bit Resolution ? 16-bit ? 20-bit ? 24-bit
Time Code Format ? 23.976 ? 25/50 ? 29.97/59.94 DF
Tape Format ? HDCAM
Program Configuration ? 5.1 + 2 ? 5.1 ? 4
Sync (frame offset) ? -1 ? 0 ? +1

Audio Service Configuration Bitstream Information
Audio Coding Mode ? 3/2 ? 3/1 Audio Production Information ? YES ? NO
Bitstream Mode ? Complete Main ? Main M&E Original Bitstream ? YES ? NO
LFE Filter ? Enabled ? Disabled Copyright ? YES ? NO
Mix Room Type ? Large ? Small
Mix Level

Processing Extended Bitstream Information
Dialog Normalization Preferred Stereo Downmix Mode ? Not Indicated
RF Overmod Protection ? Enabled ? Disabled ? Lt/Rt Preferred
Digital De-emphasis ? Enabled ? Disabled ? Lo/Ro Preferred
DC Filter ? Enabled ? Disabled Lt/Rt Center Downmix Level
Bandwidth Lowpass ? Enabled ? Disabled Lt/Rt Surround Downmix Level
LFE Lowpass Filter ? Enabled ? Disabled Lo/Ro Center Downmix Level
Digital De-emphasis ? Enabled ? Disabled Lo/Ro Surround Downmix Level

Dynamic Range Control
Line Mode ? None ? Speech ? Film Std. ? Film Light ? Music Std. ? Music Light
RF Mode ? None ? Speech ? Film Std. ? Film Light ? Music Std. ? Music Light

Downmix Processing
Dolby Surround Mode ? Not Indicated ? Dolby Surround ? Not Dolby Surround
Center Downmix Level ? -3 dB ? -4.5 dB ? -6 dB
Surround Downmix Level ? -3 dB ? -6 dB ? -999 dB
Surround 3 dB Attenuation ? Enabled ? Disabled
90-Degree Phase-Shift ? Enabled ? Disabled

Track Format Notes
Channel 1 Front Left
Channel 2 Front Right
Channel 3 Center
Channel 4 LFE (where applicable)
Channel 5 Surround Left
Channel 6 Surround Right
Channel 7
Channel 8



2.4 Accompanying Audio Multi-track Format (if required)

Accepted format is DA-88.


8 Track Digital Audio (DA-98 or DA-88)

Track 1 - English Fullmix Left (Lt if available)

Track 2 - English Fullmix Right (Rt if available)

Track 3 - undipped BG/FX Left (Lt if available)

Track 4 - undipped BG/FX Right (Rt if available)

Track 5 - undipped Music Left (Lt if available)

Track 6 - undipped Music Right (Rt if available)

Track 7 - Narration/VO dialogue

Track 8 - On-camera/Actuality dialogue

29.97 SMPTE Time Code on the Time Code Track to be synchronous with picture master(s).

2.4.2 Mix reference

Reference on all Masters shall be -20dbFS (or equivalent) and peak program level shall be restricted to 8db above reference (or -12dbFS)

2.4.3 Timecode

On DA-88 Master, timecode shall match picture Masters (i.e. 01:00:00:00 program start, drop-frame)

2.4.4 Sample Rates

On DA-88 Master, sampling rate shall be 48kHz (16bit) and noise shaping (where applicable) shall not be used on Mix Stems (tracks 3 through 8). If noise shaping is employed on stereo full mix, this shall be noted on tape labels.

2.4.5 Audio Compression and Limiting

Mix Stems shall NOT be dynamically buss-limited (i.e. stems are not restricted to the 12db over ref. peak limit). Stems summed at unity gain shall result in an unlimited version of the stereo full mix.

2.4.6 Reference Signals

Test tones for all Multi-track Masters shall be 1kHz tone @ -20dbFS.

10th April 2008
Old 10th April 2008
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Frank S. is offline
Georgia - Who are those tech specs from? Most of it is very similar to the clients I deal with, but there are some differences. I want to make sure I have the latest deliverable requirements!

This skull rocks.
10th April 2008
Old 10th April 2008
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jacobfarron is offline
This is No. HD-05.2 Discovery.
Thread Starter
12th April 2008
Old 12th April 2008
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Every company had different delivery specs... Lots of the same with many overlapping standards, but there's always something that i'll nail you if yo don't read the specs before QC and shipping....


PS: I posted these, becuase they are a good example of industry delivery requirements for newbies to look at...
Thread Starter
14th April 2008
Old 14th April 2008
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Blu-ray disc UDF 2.6 specs and stuff

here's some links and some blu-ray information. I needed to do my homework since I realized how little I actually knew about Blu-ray...

Blu-ray Disc is a next-generation, optical disc format that enables the ultimate high-def entertainment experience. Blu-ray Disc provides these key features and advantages:
Maximum picture resolution. Blu-ray Disc delivers full 1080p* video resolution to provide pristine picture quality.
Largest capacity available anywhere (25 GB single layer/50 GB dual layer). Blu-ray Disc offers up to 5X the capacity of today’s DVDs.
Best audio possible. Blu-ray Disc provides as many as 7.1 channels of native, uncompressed surround sound for crystal-clear audio entertainment.
Enhanced interactivity. Enjoy such capabilities as seamless menu navigation, exciting, new bonus features, and network/Internet connectivity.
Broadest industry support from brands you trust. More than 90% of major Hollywood studios, virtually all leading consumer electronics companies, four of the top computer brands, the world’s two largest music companies, PLAYSTATION® 3 and the leading gaming companies, all support Blu-ray Disc.
The largest selection of high-def playback devices.Blu-ray Disc is supported by many of the leading consumer electronics and computing manufacturers. That means you can maximize the use of your HDTV and your home entertainment system with the widest selection of high-def playback devices—including players, recorders, computers, aftermarket drives and the PLAYSTATION® 3 game console.
Backward compatibility**. Blu-ray Disc players enable you to continue to view and enjoy your existing DVD libraries.
Disc robustness. Breakthroughs in hard-coating technologies enable Blu-ray Disc to offer the strongest resistance to scratches and fingerprints.

Public Specifications
Dolby Authoring and Mastering Solutions for High-Definition Disc Media, Blu-ray DVD, HD DVD, and DTV
Blu-ray.com - Blu-ray Movies, Players, Recorders, Media and Software

codecs for Blu-ray

Linear PCM (LPCM) - up to 8 channels of uncompressed audio. (mandatory)
Dolby Digital (DD) - format used for DVDs, 5.1-channel surround sound. (mandatory)
Dolby Digital Plus (DD+) - extension of Dolby Digital, 7.1-channel surround sound. (optional)
Dolby TrueHD - lossless encoding of up to 8 channels of audio. (optional)
DTS Digital Surround - format used for DVDs, 5.1-channel surround sound. (mandatory)
DTS-HD High Resolution Audio - extension of DTS, 7.1-channel surround sound. (optional)
DTS-HD Master Audio - lossless encoding of up to 8 channels of audio. (optional)

Blu-ray Disc for Movie Distribution

Most people know about Blu-ray Disc's basic features: It can store 25 GB (single layer) or 50 GB (dual layer) on a single-sided disc - about 5 to 10 times the capacity of DVD. As a result, Blu-ray Disc supports the highest quality HD video available in the industry (up to 1920 x 1080 at 40 Mbit/sec). Large capacity means no compromise on video quality. Furthermore, a Blu-ray Disc has the same familiar size and look as DVD, allowing for compatibility with existing discs.

Compatibility across full family
Blu-ray Disc Rewritable (BD-RE) and related video specifications were first defined in 2003. The Blu-ray Disc ROM format for movie distribution is fully based on this specification when it was defined in 2004. As a result, users can play home-recorded discs on all of their Blu-ray Disc equipment; there are no playback compatibility issues as with rewritable DVD formats. The Video Distribution format was widely expanded to offer content producers a full range of additional features unavailable in the home recording format.

Video highlights
The BD-ROM format for movie distribution supports three highly advanced video codecs, including MPEG-2, so an author can choose the most suitable one for a particular application. All codecs are industry standards, meaning easy integration with existing authoring tools, and choice from wide range of encoding solutions. All consumer video resolutions are available:
- 1920 x 1080 HD (50i, 60i and 24p)
- 1280 x 720 HD (50p, 60p and 24p)
- 720 x 576/480 SD (50i or 60i)

Audio highlights
The BD-ROM format for movie distribution supports various advanced audio codecs, so an author can choose the most suitable for a particular application. The high capacity and data rate of Blu-ray Disc allow for extreme high quality audio in up to 8 channels to accompany High Definition video. Final audio specifications include DTS (core format), Dolby Digital AC-3 and LPCM (up to 96/24) . Optionally, the format might support DTS++ and LPCM 192/24 7.1.

Exceed DVD feature set
The Blu-ray Disc movie distribution format was designed to offer all of the features and the familiar user interface model of DVD-Video. However, content producers have a wide array of new and extended features to be included in a Blu-ray Disc title. For this, two profiles are available:

"HDMV" mode
Offers all features of DVD-Video and more. The authoring process is in line with DVD-Video creation.

"BD-J" mode
Offers unparalleled flexibility and features, because it is based on the Java runtime environment. It allows for extensive interactive applications, and offers Internet connectivity.

"HDMV" mode

"HDMV" mode was designed to offer exciting new features, while keeping the authoring process as simple as possible. It streamlines the production of both Blu-ray Disc as well as DVD-Video titles, as the production process incorporates many identical phases. It offers improved navigational and menu features, improved graphics and animation, improved subtitling support and new features like browsable slideshows.

"Out-of-mux" reading
Unlike DVD-Video, the Blu-ray Disc format allows for data to be read from a different location on the disc, while uninterruptedly decoding and playing back video. This allows the system to call up menus, overlay graphics, pictures, button sounds, etc. at user request without stopping playback. Some examples of possibilities will be explained later.

Graphic planes
Two individual, full HD resolution (1920x1080) graphics planes are available, on top of the HD video plane. One plane is assigned to video-related, frame accurate graphics (like subtitles), and the other plane is assigned to interactive graphical elements, such as buttons or menus. For both planes, various wipes, fades and scroll effects are available, for example to present a menu.

Button graphics
Menu buttons can have three different states: Normal, Active and Selected. They support 256 color full-resolution graphics and animation, thereby greatly surpassing the capabilities of DVD-Video. Buttons can be called and removed during video playback, there is no need to return to a "menu screen".

Button sounds
Button sounds can be loaded into memory of the Blu-ray Disc player. When a user highlights or selects a menu option, the sound can be played (such as a voice-over explaining the highlighted menu choice, or button clicks). These button sounds can even be mixed with the running audio from the movie or menu.

Multi-page menus
In DVD-Video, playback was interrupted each time a new menu screen is called. Due to Blu-ray Disc's ability to read data from the disc without interrupting the current audio/video stream, a menu can consist of several pages. Users will be able to browse through the menu pages or select different menu paths, while the audio and video remain playing in the background.

User-browsable slideshows
In DVD-Video, user browsable slideshows were not possible with uninterrupted audio. As a result of Blu-ray Disc's ability to read data from the disc without interrupting the current audio/video stream, users can browse through various still pictures while the audio remains playing. This applies not only to forward and backward selecting: A user can make different selections on what picture to view (or select from a screen presented with thumbnail images) while the audio remains playing.

In DVD-Video, subtitles were stored in the audio/video stream, and therefore they had limitations on the number of languages and display styles. Again, it is due to Blu-ray Disc's ability to read data from the disc without interrupting the current audio/video stream, that subtitles can be stored independently on the disc. A user may select different font styles, sizes and colors for the subtitles, or location on screen, depending on the disc's offerings. Subtitles can be animated, scrolled or faded in and out.

"BD-J" mode

"BD-J" mode was designed to offer the content provider almost unlimited functionality when creating interactive titles. It is based on Java 2 Micro Edition, so programmers will quickly be familiar with the programming environment for BD-J. Every Blu-ray Disc player will be equipped with a Java interpreter, so that it is capable of running discs authored in BD-J mode.

Graphical User Interface
In BD-J mode, the author has complete freedom in designing the user interface. The interface is controllable by using standard navigational buttons on the remote. It can display up to 32-bit dynamically generated graphics (millions of colors), and it supports the display of pictures in standard file formats like JPEG, PNG, etc.

Playback control
The BD-J application can act as the sole interface to the disc's contents (thus replacing the player's on-screen controls as with discs authored in HDMV mode). The BD-J environment offers all of the playback features of HDMV mode, including the selection of subtitle, trick play modes, angles, etc. Video can even be scaled dynamically, so that it can be played in a small size in the corner of a menu, and resume full screen when a selection is made.

A Blu-ray Disc player might contain a small amount of non-volatile system storage (flash memory). This system storage can be used to store game scores, bookmarks, favorites from a disc, training course results, etc. As a manufacturer's option, a Blu-ray Disc player may also be equipped with Local Storage (hard disk, to allow large amounts of data like audio/video to be stored).

Internet connection
The BD-J system supports basic Internet protocols like TCP/IP and HTTP. The player may connect to the disc publisher's web site to unlock certain content on the disc (after certain conditions, like payment, are met), or dynamically display certain info (like theater playing schedules for a movie) on the screen. The disc's program may be extended with JPEG pictures or audio fragments downloaded from the Internet, or it can even stream full new audio/visual content to Local Storage.

The Blu-ray Disc format for Movie Distribution offers two flexible profiles for the creation of titles. It was designed to allow for the streamlined development of Blu-ray Disc (HD) and DVD-Video (SD) titles at the same time, if needed. Basic menus and navigation can be identical. However, it also offers many new functions that will benefit both the author (by offering flexible ways of creating disc content), as well as end users (by offering exciting new functionality compared to DVD-Video)

Blu-ray Disc for Video
What is the quality of Blu-ray Disc video?
Blu-ray Disc offers HDTV video quality that far surpasses any other medium or broadcast format available today. With High Definition video with a resolution of up to 1920x1080 and up to a 54 Mbit/sec bandwidth (roughly double that of a normal HDTV broadcast), no other format can match Blu-ray Disc's video quality. Furthermore, due to the overwhelming capacity of a Blu-ray Disc, no tight compression algorithms that may alter the picture quality are required, as with other formats that offer less recording space. Depending on the application, Blu-ray Disc also supports other video formats, including standard definition TV.

How much video will fit on a Blu-ray Disc?
As with DVD, this depends on the decisions on the usage of video bandwidth, the number of audio tracks and other criteria made by the author of the disc. Furthermore, the choice of the used codec also influences playback time. On average, a single-layer disc can hold a High Definition feature of 135 minutes using MPEG-2, with additional room for 2 hours of bonus material in standard definition quality. A double-layer disc even extends these numbers up to 3 hours in HD quality and 9 hours of SD bonus material. Using any of the advanced codecs, these numbers can even be significantly increased.

Do I need a new (HD) TV to use Blu-ray Disc?
No. Pre-recorded Blu-ray Disc titles will play on any standard definition TV set, even if the video was encoded in High Definition. Likewise, a Blu-ray Disc recorder can also record standard definition video, for example from regular TV broadcasts or camcorders. A Blu-ray Disc can store around 10 hours of broadcast quality standard definition video on a single-layer disc, or around 20 hours on a dual-layer disc.

How does Blu-ray Disc region coding work?

Contrary to DVD, the Blu-ray Disc region coding system divides the world into only 3 regions, called regions A, B and C. The usage of region coding on a Blu-ray Disc movie title is a publisher's option. A Blu-ray Disc player will play any movie title that does not have region coding applied, plus all titles of its corresponding region.

Region A:
- North America
- Central America
- South America
- Korea
- Japan
- South East Asia

Region B:
- Europe
- Middle East
- Africa
- Australia
- New Zealand

Region C:
- Russia
- India
- China
- Rest of World

Blu-ray.com - Blu-ray Recorders
Blu-ray.com - Blu-ray Drives
Blu-ray.com - Blu-ray Media

Blu-ray Disc

geeze, Now I feel even dumber... I dug thru all this over the weekend and i'm going to have to do more studying and research... I've got a Blu-ray project coming in a month....

27th April 2008
Old 27th April 2008
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Lori is offline
Thank you

This information is very helpful. Thank you.
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27th April 2008
Old 27th April 2008
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you are quite welcome.

12th May 2008
Old 12th May 2008
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Protools and monitoring digital inputs

Hi Georgia,

Great work on the forum here, you certainly have a great knowledge base, congratulations.

I have a question that you may be able to answer. I see that you run Protools and run it through a Euphonics desk. I have been running Protools for a number of years now with an (far less illustrious) O2R96 as controller, plus routing many inputs or outputs and taking care of monitoring, talkbacketc through the O2R96.

We are planning to install a D-Command in the future, and I am trying to get my head around monitoring external digital devices. All monitor inputs on the Xmon interface of the D-Command are analogue. So as I see it, the 2 ways to convert digital signals back to analogue are either by placing DA converters in the signal path, or by sending these inputs back to the 192, and bringing these up as tracks within Protools, and routing them to analogue interfaces as a part of the mix (obviously not routed to master out).

Is there a simpler or better way?? The second option here utilises the 192 we already have which is great, but I always worry about monitoring signal paths being incorporated into a mix...there is always the danger of bumping a fader or making some global assignment that corrupts the monitoring chain.

I assume many people have a simple solution to this problem, but I have been able to source anything online. Or maybe there is a glaringly obvious solution that just hasn't presented itself to me yet?!?!


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12th May 2008
Old 12th May 2008
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yup. the simple answer is don't do it that way. A. keep it digital and B, you don't want the room volume control to affect the mix record level.

Lets assume you are mixing and recording masters on a single protools system. The X-mon and Dcommand will allow you to listen to your mix in the dubstage/control room. Lets assume you have a master 5.1 mix and associated stems. Just mult the outputs of these to both the monitor outs and a set of mateched input tracks. THis will track back into protools the same thing you are listening to in the control room. with the exception of the A-chain EQ and room volume. This is good, as you want to record without these in your record chain anyway.


run you mixes thru master or Aux tracks and send the ouptut of these to record tracks and set the output of the recording tracks to the XMON outs so you can monitor what you are recording.

as to digital IO monitoring, yup... as I understand it you'll have to use a digital in and route it in protools routing window to whereever you want it to go and make sure it doesn't impact your mix adversly. I just re-read the D-command manual and yup, the external ins are just Analog IO... So the only other thing you could do is use external DA devices. I would recommend that you simply route in via a digital IO and then buss accordingly. Once you've created these inputs and routed them accordingly, you can always hide the tracks so they don't show up on the desk.

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12th May 2008
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I broke 10,000... cool

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23rd May 2008
Old 23rd May 2008
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Dolby requirements post.. too go to not put up here.

Jacobfarron posted this and its a great post of some of the Dolby requirements:
Theatrical Sound Production Facility Requirements

1. Introduction

Dolby Production Services contracts services and encoding equipment to content owners and
distributors wishing to release their theatrical program in a Dolby format. To ensure the highest
quality and reliability, Dolby requires that these services take place in an audio production facility that
meets the minimum requirements outlined below.

Facilities wishing to be considered for Dolby approval should contact Dolby Production Services.

2. Room Design

2.1. The room must be large enough to accommodate at least “Mid Field” monitoring. The minimum
acceptable room dimensions are 20’ long (Screen to Rear Wall) by 13’ wide with a 9’ ceiling
height. The optimum mix position is located 2/3 the length of the room away from the screen. In
the minimum sized 20’x13’ room, this position is 13’-4” from the screen.

Refer to chart below for acceptable room dimensioning ratios. The shaded area represents
acceptable conditions, whereas the straight line represents the optimum ratio.

3. Speakers

3.1. The screen speakers (Left, Center, and Right) must be the same make and model and must be
behind a perforated projection screen. The screen speakers should be able to reproduce
frequencies +/-3dB from 40 Hz to 16 kHz without assistance (satellite systems utilizing a
subwoofer to achieve full range are not acceptable for use as the screen speakers). The screen
speakers must be able to produce “clean” sound pressure levels (peaking) up to 105dBC SPL.
The location of the Left and Right speakers should not subtend an angle greater than 45
degrees from the mix position. The speaker cabinets should also be mounted at the same
vertical height, which should be mid-screen, for all screen channels.

Rev 20080213 Page 1 of 3

3.2. There must be at least (2) pairs of surround speakers mounted along the sidewalls to create an
effective surround “array”. Larger mixing rooms will have several surround pairs that cover
listening areas in front of and behind the mix position. In smaller rooms, the first pair of
surrounds must be slightly in front of the mix position. The second surround pair should be
slightly behind the mix position.

Mix stages that are to be equipped for Dolby Digital Surround EX must also have at least (1)
pair of surround speakers mounted on the rear wall. A separate two-channel amplifier must also
power the rear surround speakers to allow proper Surround EX monitoring.

For smaller mix rooms, surround speakers should never be directly “on axis” with the mix
position. The surround speaker array must be able to produce “clean” sound pressure levels
(peaking) up to 105dB SPL.

3.3. There must be a separate subwoofer capable of producing an equalized response of 25Hz-
120Hz +/- 3dB. The subwoofer must also be able to produce “clean” sound pressure levels
(peaking) up to 115dBC SPL.

4. Equalization & Delay

4.1. The speaker system must be equalized to the ISO 2969 “X” curve. There must be 1/3 octave or
parametric equalization inserted before the screen channel amplification to accomplish this
equalization. For the surround channels, single octave EQ is acceptable but not recommended.

4.2. If the distance from the mixer to the screen is more than 1.5 times the distance from the mixer to
the surrounds, a suitable delay line should be inserted (Pre-EQ) into each surround channel
monitoring path. It is recommended that the delay line is patchable so that it can be inserted in
the recording chain should a separate picture and track screening master be required.

4.3. A parametric EQ of at least one but preferably more bands and a 120 Hz low pass filter (Pre-EQ)
should be inserted in the LFE (subwoofer) monitor path. The LFE filter should be a 3rd order
Butterworth filter set with a crossover point at 120 Hz. Higher order filters are acceptable, but
lower order filters can cause incorrect perception of the LFE channel. Also, it is recommended
that the 120 Hz low pass filter is patchable so that it can be inserted in the recording chain
should a separate picture and track screening master be required.

5. Level

5.1. After proper equalization, the monitor levels need to be calibrated to 85 dBC SPL for each
screen channel (L,C,R), 82 dBC for each surround channel, and +10 dB in-band gain (RTA
method) referenced from the center channel for the subwoofer. A compliance check of EQ and
levels by a Dolby engineer must be performed prior to commencement of each contracted mix.

5.2. The sound system must be designed to provide a minimum headroom specification of +20dB
above normal reference level for each channel.

5.3. The console monitor section must have a multi-channel assignable fader with at least six inputs
and outputs. The monitor section must also provide a ‘fixed reference level’ mode for proper
listening levels when mixing and print mastering.

Rev 20080213 Page 2 of 3

6. Equipment

6.1. Dolby will supply a Digital Mastering Unit (DMU) to approved 5.1 mixing studios IF the length of
the film is 40 minutes or more. For short subjects or trailers, the film must be mastered to a
digital multitrack format and transferred at an approved Dolby Digital transfer facility..

6.2. Studios that are approved to use the Dolby DMU mastering system must also meet certain
business requirements (films per year) to be considered for a permanent installation. For studios
not meeting these business requirements, Dolby supplies a traveling DMU on a “per-mix” basis.

6.3. The “Dolby Surround Tools” plug-in for ProTools can not be used to create an Lt/Rt during the
final film print master. This plug-in does not facilitate the proper metering and processing needed
during mastering. Although the plug-in cannot be used for print mastering, it can be used for pre-
mixing. Also, any analog tape machines being used for the mix should be equipped with Dolby
SR noise reduction

Note: Dolby Laboratories, Inc. Model CP650 is a recommended cinema processor for decoding many
formats such as: Dolby Digital Film Soundtrack, SR/A Optical Film Soundtrack, and Digital 5.1 and
Lt/Rt Studio Masters.
Dolby Multichannel Music Mixing pdf. I do not know if these numbers carry over into TV Post sound. However, in the appendix it seems that Dolby has simply copied these numbers from AES, EBU, and ITU recommendations. These are also almost identical to THX recommendations I have seen.

3.1.2 Acoustics
Early Reflections
Any early reflections (within 15 ms) should be at least 10 dB below the level of the
direct sound for all frequencies in the range 1 kHz to 8 kHz [6].
Reverberation Field
Reverberation time is frequency-dependent. The nominal value, Tm, is the average of
the measured reverberation times in the 1/3-octave bands from 200 Hz to 4 kHz and
should lie in the range: 0.2 < Tm < 0.4 s. Tm should increase with the size of the room;
the formula in Table 3-2 is a guide.

Reflective and Absorbent Surfaces
Large flat reflective surfaces should be avoided in the mixing environment.
Placement of doors, control room windows, and equipment should be considered with
speaker placement and aiming in mind. A combination of diffuse reflectors and
absorptive materials should be used to achieve a smooth RT decay time within the
specified range shown in Figure 3-1.
Again, it is recognized that these values may not be achievable in some installations,
but is recommended that the room be measured using a real-time analyzer and that
architectural solutions (wall treatments, bass traps, room reorientation, and so on) be
utilized first to achieve the recommended values. A mixture of diffuse reflective and
absorbent surfaces, applied evenly to the whole room, aids in creating an acceptable
reference listening condition [12].
Only after considerable effort has been made using architectural solutions to smooth
the room response should equalizers be introduced into the monitor chain. See
Section 4.2 for more information on room equalization.

Background Noise
The listening area should ideally achieve an NC rating of 10 or below with the
equipment off, measured at the reference position. A studio with equipment such as
video projectors, video monitors, and other ancillary equipment powered on should
achieve a rating of ? NC 15.
Any background noise should not be perceptibly impulsive, cyclical, or tonal in nature.

NR 10 or NR 15 may be hard to realize in a practical manner in some installations, in
which case, every effort should be made to identify the loudest noise sources and
correct as appropriate. The most common noise sources and possible remedies include:
• HVAC systems: Increase the surface area of the supply air vent. Separate or float
all mechanical connections between high velocity or rumbling motors and ducts
and the listening room.
• Equipment: Contain computers and other equipment with loud fan noise in noise
attenuating, ventilated cabinets.
• Doors and windows: Make sure all the doors and windows are aligned properly
and form a seal when closed. Adding a second window or door, with air space
between it and the original, can reduce unwanted noise considerably.
Other sources of problem noise may need to be addressed. Every effort should be
made to approach the recommended values shown in Figure 3-2.

Once again, THESE ARE NOT REQUIREMENTS FOR APPROVAL. They are the only recommendations I have found Dolby to make. Furthermore, they are general guidelines based on AES, EBU, and ITU recommendations.

If someone knows that these figures are not applicable for Cinema/TV, etc please let me know.

JBL also lists acoustic considerations specifically for Cinema, based on Lucasfilm recommendations. http://jblpro.com/pub/cinema/cinedsgn.pdf
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25th June 2008
Old 25th June 2008
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more definitions 1

A ampere (Ampere) A A
A (m) ampère (Ampère) A A
A (n) Ampere A A
Å Angström (m) (n)
AA Automobile Association (UK) (f)
a atto (10–18) a
a Atto... (10–18) a a
a (n) Jahr <year> a a
ä. D. (m) äußerer Durchmesser OD
ABC Capital Cities / American Broadcasting Company (f) (f)
ABC Australian Broadcasting Commission (f) (f)
ABCB air–blast circuit breaker (m)
ABCB Australian Broadcasting Control Board (m) (m)
ABERT Associaçao Brasileira de Emissoras de Radio e Television (f) (f)
ABL automatic black level (m)
ABRATE Associaçao Brasileira de Empresas de Televisao (f) (f)
ABU Asia–Pacific Broadcasting Union (f) (f)
ABUT (f) Association Belge des utilisateurs de telecommunications
AC alternating current CA (m)
ACATS Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Service (US) (m) (f)
ACB air circuit breaker (m)
ACET (f) Association Canadienne des Entreprises de Telecommunications (f)
ACI adjacent–channel interference (m) (f)
ACK (affirmative) acknowledgement (m) (f)
ACTV advanced compatible television (f) (n)
ACS access control system (DAB) (m) (n)
ACSB amplitude companded sideband (f)
AD assistant director
A/D analogue–to–digital A/D–, AD–
AD– Analog/Digital– A/D
ADC analogue–to–digital convertor CAN (m)
ADCT adaptive discrete cosine transform (f)
ADDS audio digital distribution service (m) (m)
ADDT Advanced Digital Television Technologies (Eureka)
ADM adaptive delta modulation (f) ADM
ADM (f) adaptive Deltamodulation ADM (f)
ADN (m) Allgemeiner Deutscher Nachrichtendienst
<German news agency>
ADPCM adaptive digital (delta, differential) PCM MICDA ADPCM
ADPCM (f) adaptive Delta–PCM ADPCM MICDA
ADSL asymmetrical digital subscriber line (f) (f)
ADTV advanced digital television (f) (n)
AELE (f) Association Européenne de Libre Échange EFTA EFTA
AES Audio Engineering Society (f) (f)
AES/EBU <digital audio interface standard>
AEU Asia Electronics Union (f) (f)
A2F (f) Antenne 2 France ( " 1992) (f)
AF alternative frequencies (RDS) (f) AF
AF (f) alternative Frequenz (RDS) AF (f)
AF audiofréquence AF NF
AF audio frequency AF NF
AFBC African Broadcasting Conference (ITU) (f) (f)
AFC automatic frequency control CAF AFC
AFC (f) automatische Frequenzabstimmung AFC CAF
AFM assistant floor manager (m)
AFN American Forces Network (m) (m)
AFNOR (f) Association française de normalisation (f)
AFRS Armed Forces Radio Service (USA) (m)
AFRTS Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (USA) (m) (m)
AFUT (f) Association française des utilisateurs du (f)
téléphone et des télécommunications
AGC automatic gain control CAG AVR
agl above ground level
AGTP Advisory Group on Telecommunications Policy (ITU) (m) (f)
Ah (f) Amperestunde AH
AH ampere–hour (m) (m)
AI artificial intelligence (f)
AIBD Asia–Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development (m)
AIC auxiliary information channel (DAB) (m)
AICS (f) Association internationale de cinéma scientifique ISFA (f)
AID (f) Alliance international de la distribution par fil (f)
AID (f) Association internationale de développement IDA
AID automatic incident detection (f) (f)
AIEA (f) Agence international de l’energie atomique IAEA IAEA
AIF (m) analyseur d’images fixes
AIGA (f) Association internationale de géomagnétisme et d’aéronomie IAGA (f)
AIMPA (f) Association internationale de météorologie et IAMAP (f)
de physique de l’atmosphere
AIR All India Radio (f) (n)
AIR Associación Interamericana de Radiodifusión IAAB (f) (f)
AIRC Association of Independent Radio Contractors (UK) (f) (f)
AITV (m) Agence d’Images <French TV news agency>
ALC automatic level control (f) (f)
ALERT Advice and problem location for European road traffic (m) (f)
ALF annual licence fee (f) (f)
ALGOL algorithmic language (f) (n)
ALU arithmetic and logic unit UAL (f)
AM amplitude modulation MA AM
AM (f) Amplitudenmodulation AM MA
AMDC (m) accès multiple par différence de code CDMA (m)
AMDS amplitude modulation data system (m) AMDS
AMDS (n) AM–Daten–System AMDS (m)
AMES (m) accès multiple par étalement du spectre SSMA
AMI alternate mark inversion (f) (f)
AMIC Asian Mass Communication and Research Centre (Singapore) (m) (n)
AMP (m) amplitude–manipulation de phase APK PAM
AMRF (m) accès multiple par répartition en fréquence FDMA FDMA
AMRT (m) accès multiple par répartition dans le temps TDMA TDMA
AMSAT Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation (m) (f)
ANB Asahi National Broadcasting Company (Japan) (f) (f)
ANIE Associazione ****onale industrie (f) (f)
elettrotecniche ed ellettroniche (Italy)
ANIEL Associación Nacional de Industria Electronica (Spain) (f) (f)
ANL automatic noise limiter (m) (m)
ANSCS Australian National satellite Communications System (m)
ANSI American National Standards Institute (USA) (m) (n)
ANTI Associazoni ****onale televisioni italiane (Italy) (f) (f)
ANT animated news titles (m)
AOS acquisition of signal (f)
AOT adjust on test
AP assistant producer (m)
APC automatic phase control CAP (f)
APD areal packing density (magnetic tape) (f) (f)
APK amplitude–phase–keying AMP (f)
APL average picture level VMI (m)
APTC Asia–Pacific Telecommunity (f) (f)
APTU (m) Afrikanischer Post– und Fernmeldeverein
APR American Public Radio (US) (f) (n)
APRS Association of Professional Recording Studios (f) (f)
AR aspect ratio (m) (n)
ARABSAT Arab Satellite Communications Organization (f)
ARD (f) Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Rundfunkanstalten (f)
der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
ARI <Automobile drivers’ Radio Information service> (m) ARI
ARI (f) Autofahrer–Rundfunk–Information ARI (m)
A3R Antena 3 de Radio, SA (f) (f)
ARO audio receive–only
ARTE <Franco/German cultural public television channel> (f) (n)
ARRL American Radio–Relay League (f) (n)
ARTS Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (f) (n)
ASA American Standards Association (f) (f)
ASBU Arab States Broadcasting Union (f) (f)
ASC automatic sensitivity control CAS (f)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange (m) (m)
ASCO Arab Satellite Communication Organization (f) (f)
ASCTy audio service component (DAB) (f)
ASE adapted spectrum energy (f) (f)
ASE (f) Agence spatiale européenee ESA ESA
ASEAC (f) Association Suisse des exploitants d’antennes collectives (f)
ASEAN Association of South–East Asian Nations (f) ASEAN
ASEAN (f) Südostasien–Pakt ASEAN (f)
ASETA Associación de empressas estatales de telecommunicaciones ASETA (f) (f)
del acuerdo sub–regional Andino
ASETA Association of State Telecommunication (f) (f)
Agencies for the Andean Region
ASIC application–specific integrated circuit (m)
asl above sea–level
ASN aural sensitivity network (m) (n)
ASPEC adaptive spectral entropy coding (m) (f)
ASSD audio service synchronized data (DAB) (m) (f)
AST automatic scan tracking (m) (n)
ASTC Asian Satellite Telecommunication Corporation (f) (f)
ASTRE (f) Analyse statistique des trafics Eurovision (f)
ASV– Arabe standard voyellé – codage arabe ASV–CODAR (m)
ASV–CODAR Standard Arabic with vowels – Arabic coding ASV–CODAR
AT ampere–turn (m) AW
ATA adaptive transform audio coding (m) (n)
ATAC adaptive transformation audio coding (m) (n)
ATC Argentina Televisora Color (f) (n)
ATD asynchronous time division (multiplex) (m) (n)
ATE automatic test equipment (m) (f)
ATEC Agency for Tele–Education in Canada (f) (f)
ATF automatic track finding (CD, DVTR) (m)
ATM asynchronous transfer mode (m) (m)
ATOP (m) amplificateur à tube à ondes progressives TWTA
ATR audio tape–recorder
ATRAC adaptive transform acoustic coding (m) (n)
ATRC Advanced Television Research Consortium (m) (n)
ATS (m) satellite d’application technologique ATS (n)
ATS Applications Technology Satellite ATS (n)
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee (USA) (m) (n)
ATT advanced road transport telematics (f) (n)
ATT American Telephone and Telegraph (f) (f)
ATTC Advanced Television Testing Centre (USA) (m) (n)
ATU Arab Telecommunication Union (f) (f)
ATV advanced television (f) (n)
ATV Asia Television Ltd. (f) (f)
ATV Associated Television (UK) (f) (n)
ATVA American Television Alliance (f) (f)
AU access unit (f) (f)
AÜ (f) Außenübertragung OB
AuBC Australian Broadcasting Commission (f) (f)

AV (m) appareil de visualisation VDU
AV Audiovision (f) (f)
AVC automatic volume control (m) (f)
avd additional vertical deflection (3D–TV) (f) (f)
AVI audio video interleave (multimedia format)
AVI automatic vehicle identification (f) (f)
AVR (f) automatische Verstärkungsregelung AGC CAG
AVR automatic voltage regulator (m) (m)
AVRO Allgemeene Vereeniging Radio Omroep (Netherlands) (f) (f)
AVS Ampex Video System (m) (n)
AW (f) Ampere–Windung AT
AWG American Wire Gauge (m) (n)
AZ azimuth (m)
AZ–EL azimuth–elevation

BABEL Broadcasting Across Barriers of European Language (m)
BAC British Aircraft Corporation (f) (f)
BAI bit allocation information (DAB) (f) (f)
BAPT (n) Bundesamt für Post und Telekommunikation (f)
<German federal PTT authority>
BASIC Beginners’ All–purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (m) (n)
BA–Signal(n) Bild– und Austastsignal <video signal without syncs> (m)
BAS– (n) Bild–, Austast– und Synchronsignal (m)
Signal <video signal with syncs>
BALUN balanced–to–unbalanced
BAT Bureau de l’assistance technique (m) (n)
BB baseband (f) (n)
BBC British Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
BB–FM (f) Breitband–Frequenzmodulation
BBR basic broadcast reliability (f) (f)
BC bayonet cap (f) (m)
BCB Broadcasting Corporation of the Bahamas (f) (f)
BCC Broadcasting Corporation of China (f) (f)
BCD binary coded decimal DCB (m)
BCH Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenguem (f)
BCI broadcast interference (m) (f)
B.cm (f) bande centimétrique (3 – 30 GHz) SHF SHF
BCNZ Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand (f) (f)
BCR basic circuit reliability (f) (f)
BCS big close shot (m) (m)
BCU big close–up TGP (m)
Bd Baud (m) (n)
B.dam (f) bande decamétrique (3 – 30 MHz) HF HF
BDC block down–converter (m)
B.dm (f) bande decimétrique (300 – 3000 MHz) UHF UHF
BE à bande étroite NB
BER bit–error rate / bit–error ratio TEB (f)
betr. betreffend
BEVR Broadcasting Electronic Video Recording (m) (f)
BF (f) basse fréquence AF
BFA Broadcasting Foundation of America (f) (f)
BFBS British Forces Broadcasting Service (m) (m)
BFD back focal distance (f) (f)
BFL back focal length (f) (f)
BFN British Forces Network (m) (m)
BFO beat–frequency oscillator (m) (m)
BH flux density vs. magnetic force
B.hm (f) bande hectométrique (300 – 3000 kHz) MF MW
BIB Board for International Broadcasting (m) (n)
BIGFON (n) Breitbandiges Integriertes Glasfaser–Fernmeldeortsnetz (m)
<integrated broadband optical–fibre network>
BIH (m) Bureau International de l’Heure BIH (n)
BIH International Time Bureau BIH (n)
BIONICS biological electronics (f) (pl.)
BIPM (m) Bureau international des poids et measures (n)
BIRD (f) Banque internationale pour la reconstruction IBRD
et le développement (Banque Mondiale)
BIRE British Institute of Radio Engineers (m) (n)
B–ISDN broadband ISDN RNIS–B (n)
bit binary element / binary unit of information eb bit
bit (n) Binärziffer (Maßeinheit) bit eb
BIT (m) Bureau international du travail ILO (n)
BITE built–in test equipment (m) (f)
BK– Breitbandkabel– <wideband cable>
B.km (f) bande kilométrique (30 – 300 kHz) LF LW
BKSTS British Kinematograph, Sound and Television Society (f) (f)
BLI (f) bandes latérales indépendantes ISB
BLR (f) bande latérale résiduelle VSB
BLU (f) bande latérale unique SSB
BLUC (f) bande latérale unique compatible CSSB
B.m (f) bande métrique (30 – 300 MHz) VHF VHF
BM Broadcasting Malta (f) (f)
BMFT Bundesminister(ium) für Forschung und Technologie (m)
<German ministry responsible for R&D>
BMPT (n) Bundesminister(ium) für Post– und Telekommunikation (m)
<German ministry responsible for PTT>
BNC baby “N” connector (m) (m)
BNR Bâlgarsho Nationalo Radio (f) (n)
BO back–off (m) (n)
BOC broadcast operations control (m) (f)
BONAC Broadcasting Organisations of the Non–Aligned Countries (f) (f)
BOT beginning of tape (m) (m)
BP back–projection (f) (f)
BP (f) bande publique CB CB–Funk
BPF band–pass filter (m)
BPI bits per inch (m)
bps bits per second
BPSK binary phase–shift keying MDP2
BR (m) Bayerischer Rundfunk (f)
BREMA British Radio Equipment Manufacturers’ Association (f) (f)
BRR basic reception reliability (f) (f)
BRR bit–rate reduction (f) (f)
BRT Belgische Radio en Televisie (f) (n)
BRTN De Nederlandse radio en Televisie uitzending in (f) (n)
Belgie, Omroep van be Vlaamse Gemeenschap
BS back shift (m) (n)
BS British Standard (f)
BS broadcasting satellite (m)
B&S Brown and Sharpe Wire Gauge (m) (m)
BSI British Standards Institution (m) (f)
B–Signal (n) Bildsignal <picture signal> (m)
BSP (n) Bruttosozialprodukt GNP PNB
BSS British Standard Specification (f) (f)
BSS broadcasting satellite service SRS (m)
BSS Broadcasting System Strategy Group (EBU) (m)
BT Bolgarskoe Televidenie (Bulgaria) (f) (n)
BTI British Telecom International (f) (f)
BTRC Belaruskaja Tele–Radio Companija (f) (n)
BTu British thermal unit (f) (f)
BTV Bangladesh Television (f) (f)
Btx (m) Bildschirmtext <teletext>
BU basic units (EBU) (f) (pl.)
BV bit variation (f) (f)
BVN (n) Breitbandverteilnetz <broadband network>
BVU (m) Broadcast Video U–matic (France)
B&W black and white N/B (f) S/W
BZT (n) Bundesamt für Zulassungen in der Telekommunikation

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25th June 2008
Old 25th June 2008
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C Coulomb (m) (n)
c centi (10–2) c c
c Zenti– (10–2) c c
°C Celsius (centigrade) °C °C
°C (m) degré Celsius (centigrade) °C °C
°C (n) Grad Celsius °C °C
C3 command, control, communications
C4 Channel–4 (UK) (m)
CA courant alternatif AC
CA conditional access (m) (m)
CAADME computer–aided applications development and (m) (n)
maintenance environment
CaBC Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
CAD computer–assisted (aided) design (f) (n)
CAD/CAM computer–aided design and manufacture CAO (n)
CAF (f) commande automatique de fréquence AFC AFC
CAG (f) commande automatique de gain AGC AVR
CAI computer–aided instruction EAO
CAId conditional access identifier (DAB) (f) (m)
CAL computer–aided learning EAO
CAMR (f) Conférence administrative mondiale des WARC WARC
radiocommunications (UIT)
CAN cancel
CAN (m) convertisseur analogique–numérique ADC
CAO (f) conception assisté par ordinateur CAD/CAM
CARMINAT <in–car information service, derived from (m) (n)
CARR (f) Conférence administrative régionale des RARC RARC
radiocommunications (UIT)
CAP (f) commande automatique de phase APC
CAPS computer–assisted planning system (EBU) (m)
CARTB Canadian Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (f) (f)
CAS (f) commande automatique de sensibilité ASC
CASE computer–aided software engineering (f)
CAT clear–air turbulence (f) (n)
CATV community antenna television (f) (n)
CATV cable television (f) (n)
CAV component analogue video (f) (n)
CAV component analogue VTR (m) (n)
CAV constant angular velocity (f) (f)
CB citizens band BP CB–Funk
CB common base (f) (f)
CB common battery (f) ZB
CBA Commonwealth Broadcasting Association (f) (f)
C–band <4/6 GHz frequency range>
CBC Canadian Broadcasting Corporation SRC (f)
CB–Funk (m) Jedermann–Funk CB BP
CBN Christian Broadcasting Network (USA) (f) (f)
CBS Columbia Broadcasting System Inc. (USA) (f) (n)
CBT computer–based training EAO (n)
CBU Caribbean Broadcasting Union (f) (f)
c–c crête–à–crête p–p SS
CC closed caption
CC common collector (m) (m)
CC Compact Cassette (f) (f)
CC (m) courant continu DC
CCC Customs Co–operation Council CCD (m)
CCD (m) Conseil de coopération douanière CCC
CCD charge–coupled device DTC (f)
CCETT (m) Centre Commun d’Etudes de Télédiffusion (n)
et de Télécommunications (France)
CCH Committee for International Coordination and (m) (n)
Harmonisation (CEPT)
CCI co–channel interference (m) (f)
CCIR (m) Comité consultatif international des CCIR CCIR
CCIR International Radio Consultative Committee CCIR* CCIR
CCIR (n) Internationaler Beratender Ausschu für das Funkwesen CCIR CCIR*
CCITT (m) Comité consultatif international télégraphique CCITT CCITT
et téléphonique
CCITT International Telegraph and Telephone CCITT* CCITT
Consultative Committee
CCITT (n) Internationaler Beratender Ausschu CCITT CCITT*
für Telegrafie und Telefonie
CCTS (m) Comité de coordination des transmissions CCTS (n)
par satellite (CEPT)
CCTS Coordinating Committee for Satellite CCTS* (n)
Telecommunications (CEPT)
CCTV closed–circuit television CCTV
CCTV (f) télévision en circuit fermé CCTV*
CCU camera control unit (f) KKG
cd Candela (m) (n)
CD Compact Disc (m) (f)
CD–A Audio Compact Disc (m) (f)
CD–I Interactive Compact Disc (m) (f)
CDAB Compatible Digital Audio Broadcasting (f) (n)
CDAD cable digital audio distribution (f)
CDM (m) centre de modulation (f)
CDM companded delta modulation MDC (f)
CDMA code–division multiple access AMDC (f)
CD–R Recordable Compact Disc (m) (f)
CDR common data–rate (video formats) (m) (f)
CD–ROM Read–only memory device on Compact Disc (m) (f)
CD–ROM Read–only memory device on Compact Disc – (m) (f)
–XA Extended Architecture
CdS cadmium sulphide CdS CdS
CdS (m) sulfure de cadmium CdS CdS
CdS (n) Cadmiumsulfid CdS CdS
CD–WO Compact Disc – write once (m) (f)
CD–WORM Compact Disc – write once, read many (m) (f)
CE common emitter (m) (m)
CE (f) Communauté européenne ( " 1993, see UE) EC EG
CE (m) Conseil de l’Europe CE ER
CE Council of Europe CE ER
C&E consulting and engineering (f) (n)
CEAC (f) Commission européenne de l’aviation civile ECAC ECAC
CeBC Ceylon Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
CEC Commission of the European Communities CEC CEC
CEC (f) Commission des communautés européennes CEC* CEC
CEC (f) Kommission der Europäischen Gemeinschaften CEC CEC
CEE (f) Communauté économique européenne ( " 1992) EEC EWG
CEE (f) Commission internationale de réglementation en vue de CEE (n)
l’approbation de l’équipement électrique
CEE International Committee on Rules for the CEE* (n)
Approval of Electrical Equipment
CEI (f) Commission électrotechnique internationale IEC IEC
CEM (m) Centre d’Écoutes et de Mesures (UER) CEM MES
CEM Receiving and Measuring Station (EBU) CEM* MES
CEM (f) compatibilité électromagnétique EMC EMV
CEMEC Committee of European Associations of (f) CEMEC
Manufacturers of Electronic Components
CEMEC (n) Komitee des Europäischen Verbandes CEMEC (f) CEMEC
der Hersteller elektronischer Bauelemente
CEMT (f) Conférence européenne des Ministères de transport ECMT CEMT
CEMT (f) Europäische Verkehrsministerkonferenz ECMT CEMT*
CEN Central Television (UK) (f) (n)
CEN (m) Comité Européen de Normalisation CEN CEN
CEN (n) Europäisches Komitee für Normung CEN CEN*
CENELEC(m) Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique CENELEC CENELEC
CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization CENELEC* CENELEC
CENELEC(n) Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CENELEC CENELEC*
CEPT European Conference of Postal and CEPT* CEPT
Telecommunications Administrations
CEPT (f) Conférence européenne des administrations CEPT CEPT
des postes et télécommunications
CEPT (f) Europäische Konferenz der Post– CEPT CEPT*
und Fernmeldeverwaltungen
CEREX (m) Centre régional d’exploitation (France) (f)
CERCO <association of national cartographic institutes> (f) (f)
CERMET ceramic metal element Cermet
Cermet (n) Ceramic–Metalloxid CERMET
CERN European Centre for Nuclear Research CERN* CERN
CERN (m) Centre européen pour la recherche nucléaire CERN CERN
CERN (n) Europäisches Kernforschungszentrum CERN CERN*
CET Central European Time TEC MEZ
CETO Centre for Educational Television Overseas (m) (n)
CETS Conference on European Telecommunications Satellites CETS (f)
CETS (f) Conférence Européenne des Télécommunications CETS (f)
par Satellites
CF cathode follower (f) (m)
CFM cubic feet per minute (m)
CFN Canadian Forces Network (m) (n)
CFR (m) circuit fictif de référence HRC
CGA colour graphics adapter (m)
CGS centimeter, gram, second
CI (m) circuit integré IC IS
C/I carrier–to–interference ratio C/I (n)
C/I (m) rapport porteuse/brouillage C/I* (n)
CIA (f) Commission internationale d’acoustique (f)
CICP (m) centre international de coordination des programmes CICP CICP
CICP international programme coordination centre CICP* CICP
CICP (n) Internationale Programmkoordinationszentrale CICP CICP*
CICR (m) Comité international de la Croix Rouge ICRC IKRK
CICT (m) centre international de coordination technique CICT CICT
CICT international technical coordination centre CICT* CICT
CICT (n) Internationale Technische Koordinationszentrale CICT CICT*
CICT (m) Conseil international du cinéma et de la télévision IFTC IFTC
CID (m) dispositif à injection de charge CID* (f)
CID charge injection device CID (f)
CIE (f) Commission internationale de l’éclairage CIE (f)
CIF common image format (video formats) (m) (n)
CIF common interface format (m) (n)
CIF common interleaved frame (DAB) (f) (n)
CIG (m) Comité international de géophysique IGC (m)
CIO carrier–insertion oscillator (m)
CIO (m) Comité international olympique IOC IOC
CIRAD (m) Concours international de reportages
d’acutalité réalisés en direct
CIRM (m) Comité international radio–maritime IRMC CIRM
CIRM (m) Internationaler Seefunkausschuß IRMC CIRM*
CIRTEF (m) Conseil International des Radiodiffusions d’Expression Française
CISAC (f) Confédération internationale des Sociétés CISAC CISAC
d’Auteurs et Compositeurs
CISAC International Federation of Societies of CISAC* CISAC
Authors and Composers
CISAC (f) Internationale Föderation der Autoren– CISAC CISAC*
und Komponistenverbände
CISPR (m) Comité international spécial des perturbations CISPR CISPR
radioélectriques (CEI)
CISPR International Special Committee on Radio Interference (IEC) CISPR* CISPR
CISPR (m) Internationaler Sonderausschuß für CISPR CISPR*
Funkstörungen (im IEC)
CITEL Conferencia Interamericana de (m)
CITP (m) Comité international des télécommunications IPTC
de presse
CIUS (m) Conseil international des unions scientifiques ICSU ICSU
CL Eurovision transmission CL CL
CL (f) transmission Eurovision CL CL
CL (f) Eurovisionssendung CL CL
CLA actuality programme (EV) CLA CLA
CLA (m) programme d’actualités (EV) CLA CLA
CLA (f) aktuelles Programm (EV) CLA CLA
CLT (f) Compagnie Libanaise de Télévision (f)
CLT (f) Compagnie Luxembourgeoise de Télédiffusion (f)
CLUT colour look–up table (m)
CLV constant linear velocity (f) (f)
CMCCR colour mobile central control room (f) CMCCR
CMCCR (m) Farbregiewagen CMCCR* (f)
CMCR colour mobile control room (f) CMCR
CMCR (m) Farb–Ü–Wagen CMCR* (f)
CMOS complementary metal–oxide semiconductor (m) (m)
CMR common–mode rejection (f) (f)
CMRR common–mode rejection ratio (m) (n)
CMRT Corporación Mexicana de Radio y Televisión (f) (f)
CMS close–medium shot (m) CMS
CMS (f) Halbnah–Aufnahme CMS* (m)
CMTT (f) Commission mixte pour les transmissions CMTT
télévisuelles et sonores (CCIR/CCITT)
CMTT Joint Study Group for Television and CMTT * CMTT
Sound Transmissions (CCIR/CCITT) CMTT
CMTT (f) Gemischte Studienkommission der CMTT CMTT*
CCIR/CCITT für Fernseh– und Tonübertragungen
CMV (f) Commission mixte pour la vocabulaire (CCIR/CCITT) CMV CMV
CMV Joint Study Group on Vocabulary (CCIR/CCITT) CMV* CMV
CMV (f) Gemischte Studienkommission der CMV CMV*
CCIR/CCITT für das Wörterbuch
CMVTR colour mobile video tape recorder (m) CMVTR
CMVTR (m) Farb–MAZ–Wagen CMVTR* (m)
C/N carrier–to–noise ratio P/B C/N
C/N (n) Träger/Rausch–Verhältnis C/N* P/B
CNA (m) convertisseur numérique–analogique DAC
CNC computer(ized) numeric control (f)
CNCL (f) Commission nationale de la communication (f)
et des libertés (France)
CNCT (m) Centre national de coordination technique CNCT CNCT / NTD
CNCT National technical coordination centre CNCT* CNCT / NTD
CNCT (n) Nationale Technische Koordinationszentrale CNCT CNCT*
CNES (m) Centre national d’études spatiales (France) (m)
CNET (m) Centre national d’études des télécommunications (France) (m)
CNN Cable News Network Inc. (f) (f)
CNR rapport porteuse/bruit thermique CNR* C/N
CNR carrier–to–thermal noise ratio CNR C/N
CNRS (m) Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France) (m)
COB chip on board
COBOL common business–oriented language (m) (f)
COCOM Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (f) COCOM
COCOM (f) Koordinationsausschuß für multilaterale Exportkontrolle COCOM* (f)
codéc (m) codeur–décodeur codec (m)
codec coder–decoder codéc (m)
COFDM coded orthogonal frequency division multiplex (m)
COMIS coding of moving images on digital storage media (m)
COMMAG combined magnetic sound (m) COMMAG
COMMAG (m)kombinierter Magnetton COMMAG (m)
COMOPT combined optical sound (m) COMOPT
COMOPT (m) kombinierter Lichtton COMOPT (m)
COMP.SIG composite signal (m) FBAS–Signal
COMSAT Communication Satellites Corporation (f) (f)
COPUOS Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (m) COPUOS
COPUOS (n) Komitee für die friedliche Nutzung des Weltraumes COPUOS (m)
CP circular polarization (f) (f)
CP construction permit (USA) (m) (f)
CPA (m) affaiblissement du signal copolaire CPA*
CPA copolar attenuation CPA
CPA critical path analysis (f) (f)
CPB Corporation for Public Broadcasting (USA) (f) (f)
CPD charge priming device (m)
CPE control processing element (m) (m)
CPFSK continuous–phase frequency–shift keying (f) (f)
CPS cathode potential stabilised (m) (n)
CPS characters per second (m)
cps cycles per second ( = Hz ) (m)
CPSK coherent phase–shift keying MDPC CPSK
CPSK (f) kohärente Phasenumtastung CPSK* MDPC
CPU caption projection unit (m)
CPU central processing unit (m) CPU
CPU (f) Zentraleinheit CPU*
CR carriage return (m) (m)
CRC cyclic redundancy check (m) (m)
CS Cesky Rozhlas (f) (f)
CR crystal rectifier (m) (m)
CRC cyclic redundancy check (m) (m)
CRI colour–rendering index (m) (m)
CRI colour–reversal intermediate (film) (m) (n)
CRO cathode–ray oscilloscope (m) (n)
CROM control read–only memory (f) (m)
CRPL Central Radio Propagation Laboratory (m) (n)
CRT cathode–ray tube (m) (f)
CS CinemaScope (m) (n)
CS close shot PR CS
CS (f) Nahaufnahme CS PR
CS codeur SIS (m) (m)
CS colour subcarrier (f) (m)
CS communications satellite (m) (m)
CSC Communications system control (Eutelsat) CSC (f)
CSC Contrôle du système de communications (Eutelsat) CSC* (f)
CSCW Computer Supported Cooperative Work (m) (n)
CSSB compatible single sideband BLUC (n)
CSI (f) Cinémathèque scientifique internationale ISFL ISFL
CSMA/CD carrier–sense multiple access with collision detection (m) (f)
CSO colour separation overlay (= chroma key) (m) (n)
CT centre tap (f) (f)
CT Ceska Televize (f) (n)
CT colour temperature (f) (f)
CT clock time and date (RDS) (m) (f)
CT current transformer (m) (m)
CTA Cable Television Association (UK) (f) (f)
CTF contrast transfer function FTC (f)
CTI (m) centre télévisuel international ITC* ITC
CTL control circuit (m) (m)
CTS clear to send
CTS Communications Technology Satellite (m) (m)
CTU Caribbean Telecommunication Union (f) (n)
CTV community television (f) (n)
CTV CTV Television Network Ltd. (f) (f)
CU capacity unit (DAB) (f) (f)
CU close–up GP CU
CU (f) Nahaufnahme CU* GP
CUG closed user group (m) (f)
CV standards converter (m)
CVC compact video cassette (f) (f)
CVTV Cadena Venezuela Television (f) (f)
CW carrier wave (f) (f)
CW continuous wave (f) (f)
CW control word (m) (n)
CyBC Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
CYC cyclorama (m) (n)

Thread Starter
25th June 2008
Old 25th June 2008
georgia's Avatar
Joined: Dec 2006
Location: NY NY
Posts: 1,589
My Recordings/Credits

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more definitions 3

d (m) Tag <day>
d deci (10–1) d
d Dezi... (10–1) d d
da deca (101) da
da Deka– (101) da da
D/A digital–to–analogue D/A–
DA– Digital/Analog– D/A
DAB Digital Audio Broadcasting DAB DAB
DAB (f) radiodiffusion sonore numérique DAB DAB
DAB (m) digitaler Hörrundfunk DAB DAB
DAC digital–to–analogue converter CNA (m)
DAD digital audio disc (m)
DAL digital active line (f) (f)
DAM digital amplitue modulation (f) DAM
DAM (f) digitale Amplitudenmodulation DAM (f)
DAP double amplitude peak
DARC Data Radio Channel (Japan) (f) (f)
DARC (m) Deutscher Amateur–Radio–Club (m)
DASH digital audio stationary head (recording) (m) (n)
DAT Digital Audio Tape (f) (n)
DATC Digital Audio Technical Committee (AES) (m) (n)
DATR digital audio tape recorder (m) (m)
DATV digital advanced television (f) (n)
DATV digitally–assisted television (f) (n)
dB decibel dB dB
dB (m) décibel dB dB
dB (n) Dezibel dB dB
DBL (f) double bande latérale DSB
DBMS data–base management system SGBD (n)
DBP (f) Deutsche Bundespost <German federal post office> (f)
DBP–T (f) Deutsche Bundespost Telekom (f)
<German federal telecommunications operator>
DBS digital black stretch (m) (n)
DBS direct broadcast(ing) by satellite (f) (n)
DC direct current CC (m)
DCB (m) décimal codé binaire BCD
DCC Digital Compact Cassette (f) (f)
DCC dynamic carrier control (f) (f)
DCE data circuit–terminating equipment ETCD DEE
DCME digital circuit multiplication equipment (m) (f)
DCNA Data Communication Network Architecture (f) (f)
DCNR digital chroma noise reduction (f) (f)
DCR digital cable radio (f) (n)
DCS digital cellular system (m) (n)
DCT Digital Component Technology (Ampex) (f) (f)
DCT discrete cosine transform (f) (f)
DCTL direct–coupled transistor logic (f) (f)
DDA digital distribution amplifier (m)
DDP (m) Deutscher Depeschendienst <German press agency> (m)
DDR–F (n) Fernsehen der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik ( " 1990) (f)
DE de–emphasis (f) (f)
DECT digital European cordless telephone (m) (n)
DEE (f) Datenendeinrichtung DCE ETCD
DEFA (f) Deutsche Film–AG (f)
DEFT digital electronic film transfer (m)
DEL delete
DEL (m) diode électroluminescente LED
DELTA Developing European Learning through Technological Advance (m) (f)
DeMPX demultiplex
DEPS (m) dernier entré, premier sortie LIFO
DES Data Encryption Standard (USA) (m)
DFF (m) Deutscher Fernsehfunk ( " 1991) (f)
DFG (n) Datenfernschaltgerät
DFS (m) Deutscher Fernmeldesatellit (m)
<German direct broadcasting satellite>
DFÜ (f) Datenfernübertragung <data transmission> (f)
DFVLR (f) Deutsche Forschungs– und Versuchsanstalt für Luft– (m)
und Raumfahrt <German aerospace research establishment>
DGCA data group conditional access (DAB) (m) (m)
dGPS differential GPS (m) dGPS
dGPS (n) differentielles globales Ortungssystem dGPS
DHD direct home delivery
DHEMT depletion–mode high electron–mobility transistor (m) (m)
DI decoder identification (RDS) (m) (f)
DICE digital intercontinental conversion system (m) (n)
(television standards converter)
DIDON (m) Diffusion de Données (France)
DIE digital image enhancement (f) (f)
DIF decimation in frequency (f)
DIGICAST(m) <French digital broadcasting system>
DIGISCAN <a television storage system> (m) (n)
DIGIVAC digital vertical aperture correction (f) (n)
DIN (f) Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V. (m)
<German industry standards organization>
DIP dual in–line package (m)
DIT decimation in time (f)
DJ disk jockey (m)
DJV (m) Deutscher Journalistenverband <German journalists’ union> (m)
DLF (m) Deutschlandfunk (f)
DLR (n) Deutschlandradio (1994 " ) (f)
DLS digital library system (m)
DM delta modulation (f) DM
DM (f) Deltamodulation DM (f)
DMA direct memory access (m)
DMCS digital mobile communication system (m)
DMV (m) Deutscher Musikverleger–Verband (f)
<German music publishers’ association>
DNR digital noise reduction (f)
DOC Department of Communications (Canada) (m)
DOC drop–out compensator (m)
DOCAT Digital Optical CATV Trunk Network (m)
DOS disk operating system (m)
DOTAN (n) digitales optisches Teilnehmeranschlußnetz (m)
<digital optical subscriber network>
DOZ (n) Deutsches Olympiazentrum <German Olympic Centre> (m)
DP (m) décalage de précision PO
DP double play (magnetic tape)
dpa (f) Deutsche Presseagentur <German press agency> (f)
DPCM differential pulse code modulation MICD DPCM
DPCM (f) differentielle Pulscodemodulation DPCM MICD
DPE digital processing equipment
DPI (m. pl) droits de propriété intellectuel IPR
DPSK differential phase–shift keying MDPD (f)
D–QPSK differential quaternary phase–shift keying (f) (f)
DR Danmarks Radio (f) (n)
DRA (n) Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv <German broadcasting archive> (f. pl.)
DRAM dynamic random–access memory (f) (n)
DRAW direct read after write
DRB digital radio broadcasting (f)
DRC dynamic range control (m) (f)
DRCS dynamically redefinable character set (m) (m)
DRCTV Dubai Radio and Colour Television Service (f) (n)
DRIVE Dedicated Road Infrastructure of Vehicle Safety in Europe (f) (n)
DRTU Derzhavna Teleradiomovna Kompania Ukräiny (f) (f)
DS (m) décodeur SIS
DSB double sideband DBL (n)
DSCH down–link satellite channel (m) (m)
DSC–HDTV digital spectrum–compatible HDTV (f) (n)
DSCPC digital single channel per carrier (m) (m)
DSCTy data service component type (DAB) (m) (f)
DSE data switching exchange (m) (m)
DSF (n) Deutsches Sportfernsehen (f)
DSI detailed spectrum investigation (CEPT/ERO) (f) (f)
DSI digital speech interpolation (f) (f)
DSK down–stream keyer
DSP digital signal processor (m)
DSR data set ready
DSR (n) Digitales Satellitenradio DSR (f)
DSR Digital Satellite Radio (f) DSR
DSS digital stills store
DSV digital sum value (f)
DT dynamic tracking (recorders) (m)
DTBC digital time–base corrector (m)
DTC (m) dispositif à transfert de charges CCD
DTC dual (double) time code (m) (m)
DTE data terminal equipment ETTD DEE
DTF dynamic track following (m) (f)
DTH direct–to–home (m) (n)
DTL diode–transistor logic (f) DTL
DTL (f) Dioden–Transistor–Logik DTL (f)
DTMF dual tone multi–frequency
DTR data terminal ready
DTU direct to user
DTVB digital television broadcasting (f)
DTP desk–top publishing PAO (n)
dTTb digital terrestrial television broadcasting (f) (n)
DTV desk–top video (f) (n)
DTVC desk–top video conferencing (m) (n)
DVC digital video camcorder (m)
DVC digital video cassette (recorder) (f)
DVD digital video disc (m)
DVE digital video effects (m) DVE
DVE (m) digitaler Videoeffekt DVE (m)
DVI digital video interactive (m) (n)
DVM digital voltmeter (m) DVM
DVM (n) Digitalvoltmeter DVM (m)
DVTR digital video tape–recorder DVTR (m)
DVTR (m) magnétoscope numérique DVTR
DW (f) Deutsche Welle (f)

EACEM European Association of Consumer Electronic Manufacturers (f) EACEM
EACEM (m) Europäischer Verband der Gerätehersteller EACEM (f)
für Unterhaltungselektonik
EAN European article number (m) EAN
EAN (f) Europäische Artikelnummer EAN (m)
EAO (m) enseignement assisté par ordinateur CAI, CAL,
EAROM electrically–alterable read–only memory (f) (m)
eb (m) élément binaire bit bit
EB (f) elektronische Berichterstattung <electronic broadcasting> (f)
Eb/No bit energy to noise density ratio (m)
EBC Educational Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
EBR electron beam recording (m) (f)
EBS Emergency Broadcast Service (m) (m)
EBU European Broadcasting Union (19 0 " ) UER EBU
EBU (f) Europäische Rundfunkunion (1950 " ) EBU* UER
EC electronic cinema (m)
EC European Community ( " 1993, see EU) CE EG
ECA Economic Commission for Africa (f) (f)
ECA European Coproduction Association (f) (f)
ECAC European Civil Aviation Commission CEAC (f)
ECAC (f) Europäische Kommission für Zivilluftfahrt ECAC* CEAC ECAC
E–cam electronic camera (f) (f)
ECC ESA Control Centre (Eutelsat) ECC (n)
ECC (m) Centre de contrôle de l’ESA (Eutelsat) ECC*
ECC error–correction code (m) (m)
ECC extended country code (DAB) (m) (m)
ECIF Electronic Components Industry Federation (UK) (f) (f)
ECL emitter–coupled logic (f) (f)
ECM entitlement checking message (CA) (m) (f)
ECM entitlement control message (CA) (m) (f)
ECMA European Computer Manufacturers’ Association (f) (f)
ECMT European Conference of Ministers of Transport (f) (f)
ECREEA European Conference of Radio and Electronic (f) (f)
Equipment Associations
ECS European Communications Satellite (m) (m)
ECU European currency unit (m) (m)
ECU extreme close–up (m) (n)
ED energy dispersal (f)
EDAC error detection and correction (m) (f)
EDI Electronic Data Interchange (m) (m)
EDIFACT Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, (m) (m)
Commerce and Transport
EDL edit decision list (f)
EDP electronic data processing (m) EDV
EDTV enhanced (extended) definition television (f) (n)
EDV (f) elektronische Datenverarbeitung EDP (m)
EEA Electronic Engineering Association (UK) (f) (f)
EEC European Economic Community ( " 1992) CEE EWG
EECA European Electronic Component Manufacturers’ Association (f) (f)
EEPROM electrically–eraseable programmable read–only memory (f) (m)
EEROM electrically–erasable read–only memory (f) (m)
eff efficace RMS
eff (m) Effektivwert RMS eff
EFFD Elektronik fabricant foreningen Danmark (f) (f)
EFP electronic field production (f) (f)
EFTA European Free Trade Association AELE EFTA
EFTA (f) Europäische Freihandelsassoziation EFTA AELE
EFR electronic film recording (m) (f)
EFuSt (f) Erdfunkstelle E/S (f)
EG (f) Europäische Gemeinschaft (1993 " ) EC CE
EHEMT enhancement–mode high electron–mobility transistor (m) (m)
EHF extra–high frequency (f) (f)
EHT extra high tension THT (f)
EIA Electronic Industries Association (USA) (f) (f)
EIAJ Electronic Industries Association of Japan (f) (f)
EIB European Investment Bank (f) EIB
EIB (f) Europäische Investitionsbank EIB (f)
EID Engineering Information Department (BBC) (m) (f)
EId ensemble identifier (f) (m)
e.i.r.p. effective (equivalent) isotropic radiated power p.i.r.e. EIRP
EIRP (f) äquivalente isotrope Strahlungsleistung e.i.r.p. p.i.r.e.
EIRT Ethnikon Idryma Radiophonias–Tileoraseos (f) (f)
EJ electronic journalism (m) (m)
EKRAN <UHF satellite system> (Russia) (m)
ELCB earth leakage circuit–breaker
ELDO European Space Vehicle Launcher Development Organisation (f) (f)
ELF extremely low frequency (3 – 10 kHz)
ELT emergency locator transmitter (m) (m)
ELS extreme long–shot (m) (m)
EM end of medium (f) (n)
E–MAC enhanced C–MAC (m) (n)
EMBRATEL Empresa Brasileira de Telecominicaçoes (f) (f)
EMC electromagnetic compatibility CEM EMV
EME (f) elektromagnetische Empfindlichkeit EMC CEM
e.m.f. electromotive force f.é.m. EMK
EMI electromagnetic interference (m) EMI
EMI (f) elektromagnetische Interferenz EMI (m)
EMK (f) elektromotorische Kraft
EMM entitlement management message (CA) (m) (f)
e.m.r.p. effective monopole radiated power p.a.r.v. EMRP
EMRP (f) äquvalente monopole Strahlungsleistung e.m.r.p. p.a.r.v.
EMS electromagnatic susceptibility (f) EME
EMS European Monetary System SEM EWS
EMV (f) elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit EMC CEM
EN (f) Europäische Norm <European Standard> (f)
ENG electronic news–gathering JET ENG
ENG (f) elektronische Berichterstattung ENG JET
ENMS Eurovision Network Management System (m) ENMS
ENMS (n) Netzsteuersystem der Eurovision ENMS (m)
ENP electronic number plates (f)
ENQ enquiry (m)
ENRS Entreprise Nationale de Radiodiffusion Sonore (f) (f)
ENS Eurovision news summary (m) ENS
ENS (m) Nachrichtenblock der Eurovision ENS (m)
ENTV Entreprise Nationale de Télévision (Algeria) (f) (f)
EOF end of file (m) (n)
EOJ end of job (m) (n)
EOL end of life (m) (n)
EOM end of message (m) (n)
EON information on enhanced other networks (RDS) (m) (n)
EOT end of text (m) (n)
EOT end of transmission (m) (n)
EP European Parliament PE EP
EP (n) Europäisches Parlament EP PE
EP extended play (discs) (m) (n)
E–PAL PAL étendu E–PAL
E–PAL (m) extended–PAL E–PAL
EPG electronic programme guide GEN
EPIRB emergency position–indicating radio beacon (f) (f)
EPLD eraseable programme logic device
EPP electronic post–production (f) (f)
EPR (f) exploitation privée reconnue RPOA
EPROM erasable programmable read–only memory (f) (m)
EPS European Paging System (m) (n)
ER Eesti Raadio (f)
ER (m) Europarat (Council of Europe)
ERC Euroradio control room (m)
ERMES European Radio Messaging System (m) (n)
ERO European Radio Office (m) ERO
ERO (n) Europäisches Rundfunkbüro ERO (m)
e.r.p. effective radiated power p.a.r. ERP
ERP (f) effektive Strahlungsleistung e.r.p. p.a.r.
ERP electronic road pricing (f) (f)
ERT Elliniki Radiophonia–Tileorassis (f) (f)
ERTICO European Road Transport Implementation (f) (f)
Coordination Organisation
ERTIS European Road Transport Information System (Eureka) (m) (n)
ERTT Etablissement de la Radio–Télévision Tunisienne (m) (f)
ERTU Egyptian Radio and Television Union (f) (f)
ERTV Egyptian Radio and Television Federation (f) (f)
E/S earth station (f) EFuSt
ESA European Space Agency ASE1 ESA
ESA (f) Europäische Raumfahrtagentur ESA ASE
ES–bus EBU/SMPTE bus (remote control) (m) (m)
ESC (m) Circuit technique (Eutelsat) ESC* (m)
ESC Engineering Service Circuit (Eutelsat) ESC (m)
ESC escape (m)
ESC European Space Conference (f) ESC
ESC (f) Europäische Raumfahrt–Konferenz ESC (f)
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia (f) ESCAP
and the Pacific (UN)
ESCAP (f) Wirtschafts– und Sozialkommission (der UN) ESCAP (f)
für Asien und den Pazifikraum
ESCORT EBU system for the classification of radio and (m) (n)
television programmes
ESDAC European Space Data Centre (ESA) (m) ESDAC
ESDAC (n) Europäisches Zentrum für Raumfahrtdaten (der ESA) ESDAC (m)
ESO electronic steadiness optimizer (m) (m)
ESOC European Space Operations Centre (m) ESOC
ESOC (n) Europäisches Raumfahrt–Operationszentrum ESOC* (m)
ESOG Eutelsat System Operations Guide ESOG ESOG
ESOG (m) Guide d’exploitation du système Eutelsat ESOG* ESOG
ESOG (n) Eutelsat–Betriebshandbuch ESOG* ESOG
1. On dit aussi souvent “l’ESA”
ESPRIT European Strategic Programme for Research and (m) ESPRIT
Development in Information Technology
ESPRIT (n) Europäisches strategisches Forschungs– ESPRIT (m)
und Entwicklungsprogramm für Informationstechnologie
ESRANGE European Space Launching Range (ESA) (f) ESRANGE
ESRANGE (f) Europäische Abschußbase für Weltraumraketen (der ESA) ESRANGE (f)
ESRIN European Space Research Institute (Italy) (m) ESRIN
ESRIN (n) Europäisches Institut für Weltraumforschung ESRIN (m)
ESRO European Space Research Organization (f) ESRO
ESRO (f) Europäische Organisation für Weltraumforschung ESRO (f)
ESS electronic stills store (f) ESS
ESS (m) elektronischer Standbildspeicher ESS (f)
ESSA Environmental Science Service Administration (f) (f)
ESTEC European Space Technology Centre (ESA) (m) ESTEC
ESTEC (n) Europäisches Zentrum für Weltraumtechnologie (der ESA) ESTEC (m)
ESVA Earth Station Verification and Acceptance (Eutelsat) ESVA ESVA
ESVA (f) Prüfung und Abnahme von Erdfunkstellen (bei Eutelsat) ESVA* ESVA
ESVA (f) Vérification et acceptance de station terrienne (Eutelsat) ESVA* ESVA
E1T Europe No. 1 Télécompagnie (f) (f)
ETAC European Technical Advisory Committee of EACEM (m) ETAC
ETAC (n) Europäisches technisches Beratungskomitee des EACEM ETAC* (m)
ETB (n) elektronisches Testbild <electronic test card> (f)
ETB end of transmission block (m) (n)
ETCD (m) équipement de terminaison de circuit de données DCE
ETP electronic test pattern (f) ETSA
ETS European Telecommunication Standard (f) ETS
ETS (f) Europäische Telekommunikationsnorm ETS (f)
ETSA European Television Services Association (f) (f)
ETSA (m) Europäischer Verband für Fernsehdienste (f) (f)
ETSI European Telecommunication Standards Institute (m) ETSI
ETSI (n) Europäisches Institut für Telekommunikationsstandards ETSI (m)
ETTD (m) équipement terminal de traitement de données DTE
ETV educational television (f) (n)
ETV Eesti Televisioon (f) (f)
ETX end of text (m) (n)
EU European Union (1993 " , see EC) UE EU
EU (f) Europäische Union (1993 " ) EU UE
EUA European Unit of Account UCE
EUREKA European Research Coordination Agency (f) EUREKA
EUREKA (f) Europäische Forschungskoordinationsagentur EUREKA (f)
EURET European Research in the field of Transport (f)
EURET (f) Europäische Forschung im Transportwesen EURET (f) EURET
EUROCAE(f) Organisation européenne pour l’équipement de
l’aviation civile
EURO– (f) Organisation européenne pour la sécurité de la EURO– EURO–
CONTROL navigation aérienne CONTROL CONTROL
EURO– European organisation for the safety of air navigation EURO– EURO–
EURO– (f) Europäische Organisation für die Sicherheit der Luftfahrt EURO– EURO–
EURO– (m) Groupement industriel européen d’études spatiales EURO– EURO–
EURO– European Industrial Space Research Group EURO– EURO–
EURO– (f) Europäische Industriegruppe für Weltraumforschung EURO– EURO–
EURO– EACEM Technical Committee (m) EURO–
EURO– (n) Technisches Komitee des EACEM EURO–
EUTEL– European Telecommunications Satellite Organization EUTELSAT EUTELSAT
EUTEL– (f) Organisation européenne de télécommunications EUTELSAT EUTELSAT
SAT par satellite
EUTEL– (f) Europäische Fernmeldesatelliten–Organisation EUTELSAT EUTELSAT
eV electronvolt (m) eV
eV (n) Elektronenvolt eV
e. V. (m) eingetragener Verein
EV Eurovision (f) (f)
EVC Eurovision control centre EVC EVC
EVC (m) Centre de contrôle de l’Eurovision EVC* EVC
EVC (n) Eurovisionsleitstelle EVC* EVC
EVDL electronically–variable delay line (f)
EVF electronic view–finder
EVF Eurovision flash news EVF EVF
EVF (f) transmission de flashs d’actualités (EV) EVF EVF
EVF (pl) Blitz–Nachrichten der Eurovision EVF EVF
EVN Eurovision news exchange (EBU) (m) EVN
EVN (m) Regelmäßiger Nachrichtenaustausch der Eurovision EVN (m)
EVS Eurovision sports news (m) EVS
EVS (pl) Sport–Nachrichten der Eurovision EVS (m)
EVSS enhanced video systems for satellite broadcasting (f) (n)
EWG (f) Europäische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft ( " 1992) EEC CEE
EWOS European Workshop on Open Systems (m) EWOS
EWOS (m) Europäischer Arbeitskreis für offene Systeme EWOS (m)
EWS early warning system (m) FWS
EWS (n) Europäisches Währungssystem (m)
EWS Emergency Warning Service (RDS) (m) (n)
EWU (f) Europäische Wirtschaftsunion (f)

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25th June 2008
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more definitions 4

F Farad (m) (n)
f femto (10–15)
F Femto... (10–15)
FABRI– Fédération des entreprises de l’industrie des fabrications (f)
MÉTAL (f) métalliques, mécaniques, électroniques et de la transformation
des matières plastiques (Belgium)
FACTS Federation of Australian Commercial Television Stations (f) (f)
FAGS (f) Fédération des services astronomiques et géophysiques FAGS* FAGS
FAGS (f) Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Services FAGS FAGS
FAGS (f) Vereinigung für astronomische und geophysikalische Dienste FAGS* FAGS
FAMOS floating–gate avalanche–injection metal–oxide (m) (m)
silicon semiconductor
FARB Federation of Australian Radio Broadcasters (f) (f)
FAT (m) Filmabtaster T–C (m)
FAX facsimile (m) Fax
Fax (n) Faksimile FAX (m)
FAZ (f) Filmaufzeichnung <film recording> (m)
FBA– Farb–, Bild– und Austastsignal
Signal (n) <colour video signal>
FBAS– Farb–, Bild–, Austast– und Synchronsignal
Signal (n) <composite video signal>
FBC Fiji Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
fc foot candle (m) fc
fc (n) Fuß–Kerze fc (m)
FCC Federal Communications Commission (USA) (f) (f)
FCS frame checking sequence (f) (f)
FD floppy disk (m) (f)
FDD frequency–division duplex (m) FDD
FDD (n) Frequenzduplex FDD (m)
FDDI fibre–distributed data interface (f) (n)
FDM frequency division multiplex MRF FDM
FDM (n) Frequenzmultiplex FDM MRF
FDMA frequency division multiple access AMRF FDMA
FDMA (f) Mehrfachzugriff mit Frequenzmultiplex FDMA AMRF
F/E Forschung und Entwicklung R&D
FE format effector (m)
FEC forward error correction (f) (f)
f.é.m. (f) force électromotrice e.m.f.
FEPM feeder–link equivalent protection margin (f) (m)
FERA (f) Fédération Européenne des Réalisateurs de l’Audiovisuel (f)
FES (f) Friedrich–Ebert–Stiftung <German foundation> (m)
FET field–effect transistor TEC FET
FET (m) Feldeffekttransistor FET TEC
FF form feed (m) (m)
FFL front focal length (f) (f)
FFT fast Fourier transform TFR (f)
FI frequency information (DAB) (f) FI
FI (f) Frequenzinformation (DAB) FI (f)
FI (f) fréquence intermédiare IF ZF
FIAT (f) Fédération Internationale des Archives de Télévision IFTA (f)
FIB fast information block (DAB) (m) (m)
FIC fast information channel (DAB) (m) (m)
FIDC fast information data channel (DAB) (m) (m)
FIDCId fast information data channel identifier (DAB) (f) (m)
FIEE (f) Fédération des industries electriques et electroniques (France) (f)
FIFO first–in, first–out PEPS (n)
FIG fast information group (DAB) (m) (f)
FILO first–in, last–out (m) (n)
FIM (f) Fédération internationale des musiciens IFM (f)
FIR finite impulse response (filter) (m)
FIT frame interline transfer (m) (m)
FITL fibre in the loop (f) (f)
FKTG (f) Fernseh– und Kinotechnische Gesellschaft (f)
<German television and film association>
fl foot–lambert (m) ft–l
FLASH–TV Flexible and Advanced Satellite System for High–Quality TV (m)
FLOF full level–one features (teletext) (m) (n)
FLS full–length shot (m) FLS
FLS (f) Halbtotale FLS (m)
FM frequency modulation MF FM
FM (f) Frequenzmodulation FM MF
FMI (m) Fonds monétaire internationale IMF IWF
FMV full–motion video (m)
FMX <American companding system for FM broadcasting> (m) (n)
FO fade out (f) FO
FO ausblenden FO (f)
FO fibre–optic (f) FO
FO (f) Faseroptik FO (f)
FORTRAN formula translation (m) (n)
FOS (m) filtre à ondes de surface
F–PAD fixed programme–associated data (DAB) (m) (pl.)
FPD flat panel display (f)
FPLA field–programmable logic array (m)
FPLMTS future public land.mobile telecommunications systems (m.pl) (pl.)
fps feet per second (m) ft/s
fps frames per second (f) f/s
FPU field pick–up (m) AÜ
FR3 France Regions 3 ( " 1992) (f) (n)
f/s (n) Bild[er] pro Sekunde fps
FS (m) Fernschreiber
FS– Fernseh– <relating to TV>
FS full shot (US) (= LS)
FSD full–scale deflection (f) (f)
FSK frequency shift keying MDF FSK
FSK (f) Frequenzumtastung FSK MDF
FSS fixed satellite service (m) FSS
FSS (m) Fester Satelliten–Funkdienst FSS (m)
FT frame transfer (m) (m)
FTC Fuji Telecasting Company Ltd. (f) (f)
FTC (f) fonction de transfert de contraste CTF
FTG (f) Fernsehtechnische Gesellschaft (f)
<German television engineering association>
ft–L (n) Fuß–Lambert
FTM flat tension mask (m) (m)
FTM (f) fonction de transfert de modulation MTF
FTN Fuji Television Network Inc. (f) (n)
ft/s (n) Fuß pro Sekunde fps
FTTC fibre to the curb
FTTH fibre to the home
FTZ (n) Fernmeldetechnisches Zentralamt der DBP–T ( " 1992) (m)
<German transmission technology centre>
FTZ (n) Forschungs– und Technologiezentrum der DBP–T (1992 " ) (m)
<German transmission technology centre>
FuFeD (m) Funkfernsprechdienst (m)
FuFS (m) Funkfernschreiber
FuVO (f) Funkvollzugsordnung
FW full–wave (f) (f)
FWS (n) Frühwarnsystem
FWU (n) Institut für Film und Bild in Wissenschaft und Unterricht (m)
FX facsimile (m) Fax
G giga (109)
G Giga... (10 )
GA (f) Gemeinschaftsantennenanlage
GaAs gallium–arsenide GaAs GaAs
GaAs (m) arsénure de gallium GaAs GaAs
GaAs (n) Galliumarsenid GaAs GaAs
GaAsP gallium–arsenide–phosphide GaAsP GaAsP
GaAsP (m) phospho–arsénure de gallium GaAsP GsAsP
GaAsP (n) Galliumarsenidphosphid GaAsP GaAsP
GAP (m) Groupe Analyse et Prévision (f) (f)
GB gigabyte
GBC Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
GBC Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
GBS Guyana Broadcasting Service (f) (f)
GCR ghost cancelling reference (f)
Ge germanium (m) Ge
Ge (n) Germanium (m) (n)
GEISCO General Electric Information Services Company (f) (f
GEMA (f) Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs– (f)
und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte
<German phonograph records rights organization>
GEN (m) guide électronique de navigation (dans les programmes TV) EPG
GEO geosynchronous equatorial (Clarke) orbit (m)
GIEL (m) Groupement des industries electroniques (f)
GIS geographic information system (m) GIS
GIS (n) geographisches Informationssystem GIS (m)
GKRR Gosudarstvenni Komitet Respubliki Belarus (f) (n)
GMT Greenwich Mean Time TMG GMT
GMT (f) Weltzeit GMT* TMG
gnd ground (f) (f)
GNP gross national product PNB BSP
GP (m) gros plan CU
GPD general purpose data (f) (pl.)
GPI general purpose interface (m) (m)
GPIB general purpose interface bus (m) (m)
GPS Global Positioning System (m) GPS
GPS (n) globales Ortungssystem GPS (m)
GR Gronlands Radio (f)
GRF (m) Groupement des radiodiffuseurs français de l’UER (f)
GS group seperator (m) (m)
GSLB (m) Groupe spécial pour les communications à large bande (f)
GSM (m) Bureau de gestion générale du système (Eutelsat) GSM (n)
GSM General System Management (Eutelsat) GSM (n)
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications (m)
GSM (m) Groupe spécial mobile
GSO geostationary satellite orbit (f) GSO
GSO (f) geostationäre Satellitenumlaufbahn GSO* (f)
GST (m) générateur de signaux tests TSG
G/T (m) gain/température G/T G/T
G/T gain/temperature G/T G/T
G/T (n) Antennengewinn/Rauschtemperatur G/T G/T
(Gütefaktor einer Satellitenempfangsanlage)
GTI (m) groupe de travail interimaire (CCIR) IWP
GTIM (m) groupe de travail interimaire mixte (CCIR) JIWP
GTO geostationary transfer orbit (f) (m)
GUI graphical user interface (m)
GV general view
GW (f) Grenzwelle

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25th June 2008
Old 25th June 2008
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more definitions 5

H Henry (m) (n)
h hecto (102)
h Hekto... (102)
H horizontal
h (f) heure h h
h hour h h
h (f) Stunde h h
HA high angle
HACBSS Homestead and Community Broadcasting (m) (f)
Satellite Service (Australia)
HATM Hellenic association of TV manufacturers (Greece) (f) (f)
HB (f) Hauptbatterie
HBI horizontal blanking interval (f)
HBK (m) hypothetischer Bezugskreis
HD–DIVINE High–definition Digital Video Narrow–band Emission (m) (f)
HDEP high–definition electronic production (f) (f)
HDLC high–level data link control (f) (f)
HD–MAC high–definition MAC (m) (n)
HDS–NA high–definition system for North America (m) (n)
HDTV high–definition television TVHD HDTV
HDTV (n) hochauflösendes Fernsehen HDTV* TVHD
HDVS high–definition video system (m) (n)
HEMT high electron–mobility transistor (m) (m)
HEO highly–inclined elliptical orbit (f) (m)
HF high frequencies (3 – 30 MHz) B.dam HF
HF (f) haute fréquence HF
HF high frequency HF HF
HF (f) Hochfrequenz HF HF
HFBC High–Frequency Broadcasting Conference (ITU) (f) (f)
HH household (m)
HI high intensity (f) (f)
Hi–Fi high–fidelity (f)
HIVITS high–quality videotelephone and (m.pl) (pl.)
high–definition television systems
HJ (m) service de jour (IFRB) HJ HJ
HJ day service (IFRB) HJ HJ
HJ (f) Tagesversorgung (IFRB) HJ HJ
HK high key (m) (n)
HK–TVB Television Broadcasts Ltd. (Hong Kong) (f) (f)
HMI heavy metal iodide (m) (n)
HN (m) service de nuit (IFRB) HN HN
HN night service (IFRB) HN HN
HN (f) Nachtversorgung (IFRB) HN HN
HNIL high noise–immunity logic (f) (f)
HP (m) haut–parleur LS
HP high–pass (m)
HPA high–power amplifier (m) (m)
HPF high–pass filter (m)
HQTV high–quality television (f) (n)
HR (m) Hessischer Rundfunk (f)
HRC hypothetical reference circuit CFR HBK
HRI high–resolution imaging (f) (f)
HRS high–resolution systems (m) (n)
HRT Hrvatska Radiotelevizija (Croatia) (f) (n)
HT (f) haute tension HT (f)
HT high tension HT (f)
HT horizontal tabulation (f) (f)
HT (m) service de transition (IFRB) HT
HT transition period service (IFRB) HT
HT (f) Dämmerungsversorgung (IFRB)
HTT home television theatre (m)
HUD head–up display
HUT home using television (m)
HV high voltage (f) (f)
HVTR helical video tape recorder (m) HVTR
HVTR (f) Schrägspur–MAZ HVTR (m)
HW half–wave (f) HW
HW (f) Halbwelle HW (f)
Hz Hertz (m) (n)

IAAB Inter–American Association of Broadcasters2 (f) IAAB
IAAB (m) Interamerikanischer Rundfunkverein IAAB (f)
IAB International Academy of Broadcasting (f) (f)
IAB International Association of Broadcasting (f) IAB
IAB (f) Internationale Rundfunkvereinigung IAB (f)
IABM International Association of Broadcasting Manufacturers (f) IABM
IABM (f) Internationale Vereinigung der Rundfunkhersteller IABM (f)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency AIEA IAEA
IAEA (f) Internationale Atomenergieagentur IAEA AIEA
IAGA International Association of Geomagnetics and Aeronomy AIGA IAGA
IAGA (f) Internationale Vereinigung für Geomagnetismus und Aeronomie IAGA AIGA
IAMAP International Association of Meteorology AIMPA IAMAP
and Atmospheric Physics
IAMAP (f) Internationale Vereinigung für Meteorologie IAMAP AIMPA
und Atmosphärenphysik
IAO (f) Internationale Arbeitsorganisation ILO BIT
IAR instruction address register (m) (n)
IARU International Amateur Radio Union IARU IARU
IARU (f) Union internationale des radio–amateurs IARU* IARU
IARU (m) Internationaler Funkamateur–Verband IARU* IARU
Asociación Interamericana de Radiodifusión (AIR)
IAU International Astronomical Union UIA IAU
IAU (f) Internationale Astronomische Union IAU* UIA
IBA Independent Broadcasting Authority (UK) (f) (f)
IBA Israel Broadcasting Authority (f) (f)
IBC international broadcasting centre IBC IBC
IBC (m) centre international de radio–télévision IBC* IBC
IBC (n) internationales Sendezentrum IBC* IBC
IBC International Broadcasting Convention (f)
IBCN integrated broadband communications network (m) IBFN
IBCN integrated broadcast communication network (m)
IBFN (n) integriertes Breitband–Fernmeldenetz IBCN (m)
IBI International Bureau for Informatics (m) IBI
IBI (n) Internationales Büro für Informationen IBI (m)
IBN integrated broadband network (m) (n)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and BIRD IBRD
Development (World Bank)
IBRD (f) Internationale Bank für Wiederaufbau IBRD BIRD
und Entwicklung (Weltbank)
IBRE Institution of Broadcasting and Radio Engineers (UK) (m) (n)
IBS International Broadcasting Society (f) IBS
IBS (f) Internationale Gesellschaft für Rundfunk und Fernsehen IBS (f)
IBS International Business Services (Intelsat) (m. pl)
IBTE Iraqi Broadcasting and Television Establishment (f) (n)
IBU International Broadcasting Union UIR IBU
( " 1950 – see EBU, OIRT, UER)
IBU (f) Internationale Rundfunkunion IBU UIR
( " 1950 – siehe EBU, OIRT, UER)
IC integrated circuit CI IC
IC (m) integrierter Schaltkreis IC CI
ICA International Communication Agency (USA) (f) (f)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation OACI ICAO
ICAO (f) Internationale Organisation für Zivilluftfahrt ICAO OACI
IC&C International Communications and Computers (m) (f)
ICCP Committee for Information, Computer and (m) (n)
Communication Policy (OECD)
ICDF International Caption Disk Format (m) (n)
ICE in–circuit emulation (f) (f)
ICEC International Caption Exchange Code (m) (m)
ICEM International Council on Educational Media (m) ICEM
ICEM (m) Internationaler Rat für Bildungsmedien ICEM (m)
ICEP International Caption Exchange Project (m) (n)
ICO intermediate circular orbit (f)
ICR Instituto Cubano de Radiodifusión (m) (n)
ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross CICR IKRK
ICRP International Commission for Radiological Protection (m) ICRP
ICRP (f) Internationale Kommission für Strahlenschutz ICRP (m) ICRP
ICRT International Cuban Radio and Television (f) (n)
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions CIUS ICSU
ICSU (m) Internationaler Rat der wissenschaftlichen Vereinigungen ICSU CIUS
ID identification (m)
ID inside diameter (m) (m)
IDA International Development Agency (f) IDA
IDA (f) Internationale Entwicklungsorganisation IDA (f)
IDATE (m) Institut de l’Audiovisuel et des (n)
Télécommunications en Europe (France)
IDN integrated digital network RNI IDN
IDN (n) integriertes Text– und Datennetz
IDS insertion data signal (m) (n)
IDNX integrated digital network exchange (m) (m)
IDR intermediate date–rate (m) MDR
IDTV improved–definition television (f) (n)
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission CEI IEC
IEC (f) Internationale Elektrotechnische Kommission IEC* CEI
IEE Institute of Electrical Engineers (UK) (m) (n)
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (USA) (m) (n)
IERE Institute of Electrical and Radio Engineers (UK) (m) (n)
IETV Israeli Educational Television (f) (n)
IEV International Electrotechnical Vocabulary VEI IEV
IEV (n) Internationales Elektrotechnisches Wörterbuch IEV VEI
IF intermediate frequency FI ZF
I/F interface (f) (n)
IFA International Federation of Actors (f) IFA
IFA (m) Internationaler Schauspielerverband IFA (f)
IFA (f) Internationale Funkausstellung
<German broadcasting exhibition>
IFL inter–facility link (f) (f)
IFLU initial full line–up tests (Eutelsat) (m.pl) (pl.)
IFM International Federation of Musicians FIM IFM
IFM (m) Internationaler Musikerverband IFM* FIM
IFP International Federation of Producers of (f) IFP
Programmes and Videograms
IFP (m) Internationaler Verband der Programm– und IFP (f)
IFPI International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (f) IFPI
IFPI (f) Internationale Vereinigung der Phonographischen Industrie IFPI (f)
IFRB (m) Comité international d’enregistrement IFRB* IFRB
des fréquences ( " 1994)
IFRB International Frequency Registration Board ( " 1994) IFRB IFRB
IFRB (n) Internationaler Ausschuß für Frequenzregistrierung ( " 1994) IFRB* IFRB
IFTA International Federation of Television Archives FIAT IFTA
IFTA (f) Internationale Vereinigung der Fernseharchive IFTA FIAT
IFTC International Film and Television Council CICT IFTC
IFTC (m) Internationaler Film– und Fernsehrat IFTC CICT
IGFET insulated–gate field–effect transistor (m) (m)
IH in–house application (RDS) (m) (f)
IIC International Institute of Communications (m) IIC
IIC (n) Internationales Institut für Kommunikation IIC (m)
IIR infinite impulse response (filter) (m)
IK Intersputnik (f) ISK
IKRK (n) Internationales Komitee vom Roten Kreuz ICRC CICR
ILD injection laser diode (f) ILD
ILD (f) Injektionslaserdiode ILD (f)
ILO International Labour Organization BIT IAO
ILS (m) système d’atterissage aux instruments ILS* ILS
ILS instrument landing system ILS ILS
ILS (n) Instrumentenlandesystem ILS* ILS
IM initialization modifier (DAB) (m) (m)
IM intermodulation distortion (f) IM
IM (f) Intermodulation IM (f)
IMBC Independent and Multicultural Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
IMD intermodulation distortion (f)
IMF International Monetary Fund FMI IWF
IMIS Integrated Motorist Information System (US) (m) (n)
IMO International Mountain Organization (f) (f)
IN intelligent network (m) IN
IN (n) intelligentes Netz IN (m)
INA (m) Institut National de l’Audiovisuel (France) (n)
INA (f) Association internationale de la presse filmée INA* INA
INA International Newsreel Association INA INA
INA (m) Internationaler Verband der Wochenschauen
INC incoming call (m) (m)
INMARSAT(f) Organisation internationale de INMARSAT INMARSAT
télécommunications maritimes par satellites
INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization INMARSAT* INMARSAT
INMARSAT Internationale Seefunksatelliten–Organisation INMARSAT* INMARSAT
I–NRZI interleaved NRZI (m) (m)
INS information network system (m) (n)
in/s (n) Zoll pro Sekunde ips
INSAT Indian National Satellite System (m)
INTELSAT(m) Consortium international des INTELSAT* INTELSAT
télécommunications par satellites
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium INTELSAT INTELSAT
INTELSAT Internationale Fernmeldesatelliten–Gesellschaft INTELSAT* INTELSAT
INTER– International Telecommunications Satellite Organization INTER– INTER
INTER– (f) Organisation intergouvernementale des INTER– INTER
SPUTNIK télécoommunications spatiales SPUTNIK SPUTNIK
INTER– Internationale Fernmeldesatelliten–Organisation INTER– INTER
INTUG International Telecommunications Users Group (f) (f)
I/O input/output (m)
IO image orthicon (f) IO
IO (n) Image–Orthikon IO (f)
IOC Intelsat Operations Centre (m) (n)
IOC International Olympic Committee CIO IOC
IOC (n) Internationales Olympisches Komitee IOC CIO
IOT (m) Essai en orbite (Eutelsat) IOT IOT
IOT In–orbit test (Eutelsat) IOT IOT
IOT (m) In–Orbit–Test IOT IOT
I/P input (f) (m)
IPA intermediate power amplifier (m)
IPA International Publishers’ Association UIE IVU
IPC inter–personal communications (f. pl)
IPDC International Programme for the Development (m) IPDC
of Communication (UNESCO)
IPDC (n) Internationales Programm für die Entwicklung IPDC (m)
der Kommunikation (UNESCO)
IPFD input power flux density (f) IPFD
IPFD (f) Eingangsleistungsflußdichte IPFD (f)
IPIA International Phonographic Industry Association (f) IVIP
IPPV impulse pay–per–view (f) (m)
IPR intellectual property rights DPI (pl.)
IPRA International Public Relations Association (f) IPRA
IPRA (f) Internationale Vereinigung für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit IPRA (f)
ips inches per second (m) in/s
IPTC International Press Telecommunications Council CITP (m)
IQR inter–quartile range (f) (f)
IR (m) infrarouge IR IR
IR infra–red IR IR
IR (n) Infrarot IR IR
IRD integrated receiver/decoder
IRIB Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (f) (f)
IRK (f) Internationale Rundfunk–Konvention
IRPA International Radiation Protection Agency (f) IRPA
IRPA (f) Internationale Vereinigung für Strahlenschutz IRPA (f)
IRS insertion reference signal (m) (n)
IRT (f) Institut für Rundfunktechnik GmbH (m)
<German broadcast engineering research centre>
IRV Instituto Nacional de Radio y Televisión – Inravisión (f) (n)
ISB independent sideband BLI ISB
ISB (n) unabhängiges Seitenband ISB BLI
ISBO Islamic States Broadcasting Organization (f) (f)
ISBU Islamic States Broadcasting Union (f) (f)
ISDB integrated services digital broadcasting (f) (n)
ISDN integrated services digital network RNIS ISDN
ISDN (n) diensteintegrierendes digitales Fernmeldenetz ISDN RNIS
ISF international sporting federations (f.pl) (pl.)
ISFA International Scientific Film Association AICS ISFA
ISFA (f) Internationale Vereinigung für den wissenschaftlichen Film ISFA AICS
ISFL International Scientific Film Library CSI ISFL
ISFL (f) Internationale wissenschaftliche Filmothek ISFL CSI
ISL inter–satellite link (f) (f)
I2L integrated injection logic (f) I2L
I2L (f) integrierte Injektionslogik I2L (f)
ISM Industrial, Scientific and Medical
ISM interactive storage media (m)
ISO (f) Organisation internationale de normalisation ISO* ISO
ISO International Organisation for Standardisation ISO ISO
ISO (f) Internationale Organisation für Standardisierung ISO ISO
ISOG Inter–Union Satellite Operations Group (m) (f)
ISRC international standard recording code (m) (m)
ISRO Indian Space Research Organisation (f) (f)
ISWC International Short–Wave Club (m) ISWC
ISWC (m) Internationaler Kurzwellen–Club ISWC (m)
IT information technology (f) (f)
IT interline transfer (m) (m)
IT (m) internationaler Ton <international sound> (m)
ITA Independent Television Authority (UK) (f) (f)
ITC international television centre CTI ITC
ITC (n) internationale Bild–Übertragungsstelle ITC* CTI
ITCA Independent Television Companies Association (UK) (f) (f)
ITCG Information Technology Coordination Group (m) (f)
ITCH incoming terrestrial channel (m) (n)
ITE information technology equipment (m) (n)
ITEJ Institute of Television Engineers in Japan (m) (n)
ITFS Instructional Television Fixed Service (m) (n)
ITN Independent Television News (UK) (f) (n)
ITOC International Television Operations Centre (m) (n)
ITR (n) internationale Ton–Übertragungsstelle
ITS insertion test signal (m) (n)
ITSC International Telecommunications Standards Conference (f) (f)
ITT International Technology and Telecommunications (m) (f)
ITTS interactive text transmission system (m) (n)
ITU International Telecommunication Union UIT UIT
ITV interactive television (f)
ITVA International Television Association (f) (f)
IV InterVision (m) (f)
IvD (m) Ingenieur vom Dienst <supervising engineer> (m)
IVD interactive video disc (m)
IVDS interactive video and data service (m) (n)
IVICO integrated video codec (RACE) (m) (m)
IVN Intervision News Exchange (m) IVN
IVN (m) regelmäßiger Nachrichtenaustausch der Intervision IVN (m)
IVPI (m) Internationaler Vereinigung der Phonographischen Industrie IPIA (f)
IVS integrated video services (m) (m)
IVT interactive video tape (f) (n)
IVU (f) Internationale Verleger–Union
IW initialization word (DAB) (m) (n)
IWF (m) Internationaler Währungsfonds
IWP Interim Working Party (CCIR) GTI (f)

Thread Starter
25th June 2008
Old 25th June 2008
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Joined: Dec 2006
Location: NY NY
Posts: 1,589
My Recordings/Credits

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more definitions 6

J Joule (m) (n)
JBC Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
JBIG Joint Bi–level Image Expert Group (ISO) (m)
JCC Jerusalem Communications Centre (m) (n)
JCS Jerusalem Capital Studios (m.pl) (pl.)
JEDEC Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (m) (m)
JES (f) journalisme électronique par satellite SNG (n)
JESSI Joint European Submicron Silicon Initiative (Eureka) (m) (n)
JET (m) journalisme électronique de télévision ENG (n)
JFET junction field–effect transistor (m) JFET
JFET (m) Sperrschicht–Feldeffekttransistor JFET (m)
JIWP Joint Interim Working Party (CCIR) GTIM (f)
JO (m.pl) Jeux Olympiques OG
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group (ISO) (m) (f)
JRT Jugoslovenska Radiotelevizija (Yugoslavia) (f) (f)
JRTV Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (f) (f)
JT (m) journal télévisé
JTC Joint Technical Committee (EBU/ETSI) (m) JTC
JTC (n) Gemeinsames Technisches Komitee (EBU/ETSI) JTC (m)
JTV Jordan Television (f) (n)

k kilo (103)
k Kilo... (10 )
K Kelvin (m) (n)
kB kilobyte
KBS Korean Broadcasting System (f) (f)
KBTS Kuwait Broadcasting and Television Service (f) (f)
KDD Kokusai Denshin Denwa Co. Ltd. (Japan) (f) (f)
KKG (n) Kamerakontrollgerät CCU (f)
KMEN Kalaalit Nunaata Radioa (Greenland) (f) (f)
KTV Kuwait Television (f) (f)
KW (f) Kurzwelle SW OC

LA low angle
LAN local area network RLE (n)
L–SAT European Telecommunication Large satellite (m) (m)
laser light amplification by stimulated emmission of radiation (m) Laser
Laser (m) Lichtverstärkung durch induzierte Strahlungsemission laser (m)
lb pound weight (approx. 453 g) (f) lb
lb (n) Pfund lb (f)
lbf/in2 (n) Kraft–Pfund pro Quadratzoll psi
LB local battery (f) OB
LBC Liberian Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
LBRV low bit–rate voice (f) (f)
LBS Liberian Broadcasting System (f) (f)
LC inductance–capacitance (m) LC–
LC– Induktivitäts/Kapazitäts– LC
LCD liquid crystal display (m) LCD
LCD (f) Flüssigkristallanzeige LCD (m)
LCT low colour temperature (f) (f)
LCP left–hand circular polarization (f)
LD laser disk (m) (f)
LDR light–dependent resistor (f) LDR
LDR (m) Fotowiderstand LDR (f)
LDTV low (limited) definition television (f)
LED light–emitting diode DEL LED
LED (f) Leuchtdiode LED DEL
LEGBAC Limited Exploratory Group on Broadcast to (m) (f)
Aeronautical Compatibility (CEPT)
LEO low earth orbit (f) (m)
LEOS low earth orbit satellite (m)
LF line feed (m) (m)
LF low frequencies (30 – 300 kHz) B.km LW
LF low frequency BF NF
LFN logical frame number (DAB) (m) (f)
LH left–hand
LHC left–hand circular (polarization) (f)
LIFO last–in, first–out DEPS
LJB Libyan Jamaherya Broadcasting (f) (f)
lm Lumen (m) (n)
LMCR lightweight mobile control room
LMS library management system (m) (n)
LMSK level–controlled minimum–shift keying (f) (f)
ln natural logarithm ln ln
ln (m) logarithme népérien (naturel) ln ln
ln (m) natürlicher Logarithmus ln ln
LNA low–noise amplifier (m) (m)
LNB low–noise block (m) (m)
LNC low–noise converter (m) (m)
LOA length over–all (f) L.ü.a.
LOPT line–output transformer (m) (m)
LORAN long–range navigation (f) LORAN
LORAN (n) Langstreckennavigation LORAN (f)
LOS line of sight
LOS loss of signal (f)
LP low–pass TP
LP long play (magnetic tape, disc)
LP– (f) logarithmisch–periodische Antenne
LPF low–pass filter (m)
LPTV low–power television transmitter (m)
LS long shot PG
LS loud–speaker HP (m)
LR Latvijas Valsts Radio (f) (f)
LRT Lietuvos Radijas ir Televizija (f) (f)
LSB least significant bit (byte) (m) (n)
LSB lower sideband (n)
LSI (f) intégration à grande échelle LSI* (f)
LSI large–scale integration LSI (f)
LT Latvijas Valsts Televizija (f) (f)
LTC longitudinal time–code (m) (m)
LTO local time offset (DAB) (m) (m)
L.ü.a. (f) Länge über alles LOA
LUF (f) fréquence minimale utilisable LUF* LUF
LUF lowest usable frequency LUF LUF
LUF (f) tiefste nutzbare Frequenz LUF* LUF
LW long wave GO LW
LW (f) Langwelle LW GO
LWL (m) Lichtwellenleiter
LWT London Weekend Television (UK) (f) (f)
lx Lux (m) (n)

m metre (m)
m milli (10–3)
m Milli... (10–3)
M mega (106) M
M méga (106) M
M Mega... (106) M
MaBC Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
MA (f) modulation d’amplitude AM AM
MAC multiplexed analogue components (m) (n)
MACE Macintosh audio compression and expansion (m) (n)
MainId main identifier (of a transmitter – DAB) (f) (m)
MADI multi–channel audio digital interface (f)
MAN metropolitan area network (m) (n)
M and E music and effects (international sound track) (m) IT
MAQ (f) modulation d’amplitude en quadrature QAM
MASC masking–pattern adapted sub–band coding (m) (n)
MASCAM masking–pattern adapted sub–band coding (m) (n)
and modulation
MATE maintenance automatic test equipment (m) (f)
MATV master–antenna television (f) GA
MAZ (f) magnetische Bildaufzeichnung VTR (m)
magnetische Bildaufzeichnungsanlage
MB main battery (f) HB
MB megabytes
MBA Broadcasting Authority – Malta (f) (f)
MBA multiple beam antenna (f)
MBC Malawi Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
MBC Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
MBC–K Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
MBCL Metro Broadcast Corporation Ltd. (f) (f)
Mbps mega bits per second
MBS Mainichi Broadcasting System Inc. (f) (f)
MC main (master) control (m) (f)
MCE Meeting of Eurovision Contact Engineers (f) MCE
MCE (f) Konferenz der Eurovisions–Kontaktingenieure MCE (f)
MCI media control interface (Microsoft/Apple) (f) (n)
MCI multiplex configuration information (DAB) (f) (f)
MCP master control panel (m) (n)
MCPS Mechanical Copyright Protection Society (f) (f)
MCR mobile control room (f)
MCS medium close shot PA
MCU medium close–up PR MCU
MCU (f) Halbnah–Aufnahme MCU PR
MCU micro controller unit (f)
MCU microprogram control unit (f) (f)
MCU master control unit (f)
MD Mini–Disc (m) (f)
MDC (f) modulation delta avec compression–extension CDM
MDF main distribution frame (f) (m)
MDF (f) modulation par déplacement de fréquence FSK
MDM (f) modulation par déplacement minimal MSK
MDP2 (f) modulation par déplacement de phase à 2 états BPSK
MDP4 (f) modulation par déplacement de phase à 4 états QPSK
MDP quadrivalente
MDP (f) modulation par déplacement de phase PSK
MDPC (f) MDP cohérente CPSK
MDPD (f) MDP différentielle DPSK
MDR (m) Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (f)
MDR (f) mittlere Datenrate IDR
MDS multipoint distribution service (m)
M & E music and effects (international sound track) (m)
MEBC Middle East Broadcasting Centre Ltd. (m) (f)
MES (f) Meß– und Empfangsstation (der EBU) CEM CEM
MES (f) modulation par étalement du spectre SSM
MESZ (f) mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit
MEZ (f) mitteleuropäische Zeit CET TEC
MF (f) modulation de fréquence FM FM
MF medium frequencies ( 00 – 3000 kHz) B.hm MW
MFBE (f) modulation de fréquence à bande étroite NBFM
MFD micro floppy disk (m)
MFLB (f) modulation de fréquence à large bande WBFM
MHEG Multimedia and Hypermedia Experts Group (ISO) (m)
MI Marconi Instruments (m) (f)
mic microphone (m) Mikro
MIC (f) modulation par impulsions et codage PCM PCM
MICD (f) MIC différentielle DPCM
MICDA (f) MIC différentielle adaptable ADPCM ADPCM
MID (f) modulation d’impulsions en durée PDM
MIDI musical instrument digital interface (f) (n)
MIIS metal–insulation–insulation–semiconductor (m) (m)
Mikro (n) Mikrofon
min minute (f) min
min (f) Minute min (f)
MIPS million (mega) instructions per second (m) MIPS
MIPS (f) Million[en] Anweisungen pro Sekunde MIPS (m)
MIT Massachusets Institute of Technology (m) (n)
MITI <Japanese Ministry for Industry and Research> (m) (n)
MJD modified Julian date (f) MJD
MJD (n) modifiziertes Julianisches Datum MJD (f)
MKS metre, kilogram, second MKS
MKS Meter, Kilogramm, Sekunde MKS
ML majority logic (f) (f)
MLS medium long shot (m) MLS
MLS (f) Halbtotale MLS (m)
M2DS multipoint microwave distribution system (m) (n)
MMDS multipoint microwave distribution system (m) (n)
mmf magneto–motive force (f) MMK
MMI man–machine interaction (interface) (f) (f)
MMIC monolithic microwave integrated circuit (m) (m)
MMK (f) magnetomotorische Kraft mmf
MMSS modified mobile search system (m)
MO master oscillator (m) MO
MO (m) Mutteroszillator MO (m)
M–O magneto–optical
modem modulateur–démodulateur modem Modem
modem (m) modulator–demodulator modem Modem
Modem (n) Modulator–Demodulator modem modem
MODR magneto–optic (video) disc recorder (m) (m)
MOS metal–oxide silicon (m) MOS–
MOS– Metall–Oxid–Silizium– MOS (m)
MOSFET metal–oxide silicon field–effect transistor (m) MOSFET
MOSFET (m) Metall–Oxid–Silizium–Feldeffekt–Transistor MOSFET (m)
MoU Memorandum of Understanding (m) (n)
MP metal particle (magnetic tape) (f) (n)
MP (f) modulation de phase PM
MPEG Motion Picture Experts Group (ISO) (m) (f)
MPS microprocessor system (m) (n)
MPTV multi–programme television (f)
MPX multiplex (m)
MR Magyar Radio (Hungary) (f) (n)
MRF (f) multiplexage par répartition en fréquence FDM
MRT (f) multiplexage par répartition dans le temps TDM
MS mid–shot, medium shot PM (f)
M/S music/speech (RDS) (m)
MSAT mobile satellite
MSB most–significant bit (byte) (m) (n)
MSC main service channel (DAB) (m) (m)
MSI medium–scale integration (f) (f)
MSK minimum shift keying MDM (f)
MSO multiple system operator
MSR multi–track sound recorder (m) (m)
MSS message switching system (m) MSS
MSS (n) Informationsverteilungssystem MSS (m)
MSS mobile satellite service (m) MSS
MSS (m) mobiler Satellitenservice MSS (m)
MTBF (f) moyenne des temps de bon fonctionnement MTBF MTBF
MTBF mean time between failures MTBF MTBF
MTBF (f) mittlere Betriebsdauer zwischen zwei Ausfällen MTBF MTBF
MTF modulation transfer function FTM MÜF
MTTF mean time to fail (f) MTTF
MTTF (f) mittlere Ausfallzeit MTTF* (f)
MTTR (f) moyenne du temps total de réparation MTTR* MTTR
MTTR mean time to repair MTTR MTTR
MTTR (f) mittlere Instandsetzungszeit MTTR* MTTR
MTV Magyar Television (f) (n)
MTV Malta Television Service Ltd. (f) (f)
MUF (f) fréquence maximum utilisable MUF* MUF
MUF maximum usable frequency MUF MUF
MUF (f) höchste nutzbare Frequenz MUF* MUF
MÜF (f) Modulationsübertragungsfunktion MTF
MUSE multiple sub–Nyquist sampling encoding (m) (n)
MUSICAL Music Score Assignment Language (m) (n)
MUSICAM masking–pattern adapted universal sub–band (m) (n)
integrated coding and multiplexing
MUX multiplex (multiplexer) (m) MUX
MUX (m) Multiplexer MUX (m)
M3VDS millimetric–wave multichannel multi– (m)
point video distribution service
MVDS microwave video distribution system (m) (m)
MW medium wave MW
MW (f) Mittelwelle MW
MWV maximum working voltage (f) (f)

Thread Starter
25th June 2008
Old 25th June 2008
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more definitions 7

n nano
n Nano...
N newton (m) N
N (n) Newton N (f)
NA numerical aperture (f) NA
NA (f) numerische Apertur NA (f)
NAB National Association of Broadcasters (USA) (f) (f)
NABTS North American Broadcast Teletext Standard (f) (m)
NACB National Association of Commercial Broadcasters (Japan) (f) (f)
NAEB National Association of Educational Broadcasters (USA) (f) (f)
NAK negative acknowledge (m) (n)
NAM non–additive mix
NANBA North American National Broadcasters’ Association (f) (f)
NAPLPS North American Presentation Level Protocol Standard (m)
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA) (f) NASA
NASA (f) Nationale Luft– und Raumfahrtbehörde (USA) NASA (f)
NASDA National Space Development Agency (Japan) (f) (f)
N/B (m) noir et blanc B&W S/W–
NB narrow band BE SB–
NBAB National Broadcasting Authority of Bangladesh (f) (f)
NBC National Broadcasting Company Inc. (USA) NBC (f) (f)
NBFM narrow band frequency modulation MFBE SB–FM
NBS National Bureau of Standards (USA) (m) (n)
NC normally closed NF
NC no connection
NCA news and curent affairs
NCC news coordination circuit (m) (f)
ND neutral density (filters)
ND– Rundstrahl– <omnidirectional (antennas)>
NDBS networked database services (m. pl)
NDR (m) Norddeutscher Rundfunk (f)
NERATU Groep Nederlandse Fabrieken van Radio, Televisie en (m) (f)
Musiekapparatur in FME <Dutch industry association>
NET Nippon Educational Television Company Ltd. (f) (f)
NET (f) Norme européenne de télécommunications ETS
NETEL– Groep fabrieken van Professionele Telecommunicatie en (f) (f)
COM Radiocommunicatie apparatur in Nederland
<Dutch industry association>
NF (f) Niederfrequenz AF AF
NF noise figure (m) (m)
NF normalement fermé NC (f)
NHK Nippon Hoso Kyokai (f) (f)
NiBC Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
NIC near–instantaneous companding (m) (f)
NICAM near–instantaneous companding and multiplexing (m) (f)
NII National Information Infrastructure (USA) (f)
(“digital information super highway”)
NIRT National Iranian Radio and Television (f) (f)
NMOS n–channel metal–oxide semiconductor (m) (m)
NNI network–to–network interface (f) (n)
NO normally open NO
NO normalement ouvert NO
NOK (n) Nationales Olympisches Komitee
NOS Nederlands Omroep Stichting (f) (f)
NOZEMA Nederlandse Omroep Zender Maatschappij (f) (f)
NPR National Public Radio (USA) (f) (f)
NRDC National Research and Development Corporation (UK) (f) (f)
NRK Norsk Rikskringkasting (f) (f)
NRSC National Radio Systems Committee (USA) (m)
NRTM Nationalnoe Radiotelevidenie Moldova (f) (f)
NRU Stichting Nederlandse Radio Unie (f) (f)
NRZ non–return–to–zero (m) (n)
NRZI non–return–to–zero inverted (m) (n)
NRZL non–return–to–zero level (m) (m)
NRZM non–return–to–zero mark (f) (f)
NSC network switching centre (m) (n)
NTC negative temperature coefficient (m) NTC
NTC (m) negativer Temperaturkoeffizient NTC (m)
NTD (n) nationale technische Dispatcherstelle CNCT CNCT*
NTG (f) Nachrichtentechnische Gesellschaft (f)
NTI National Iranian Television (f) (f)
NTP normal temperature and pressure (f) NTP
NTP Normaltemperatur und –druck NTP (f)
NTSC National Television System Committee (USA) (m) NTSC
NTSC (n) Nationaler Ausschuß für Fernsehsysteme (USA) NTSC (m)
NTV Nippon Television Network Corporation (f) (f)
NTVC Nepal Television Corporation (f) (f)
NUL null (m)
NV Nordvision (f) (f)
NVOD near video on demand
NWICO New World Information and Communication Order (m) (f)

OACI (f) Organisation de l’aviation civile internationale ICAO
OAR open architecture receiver (m) (m)
OAU Organisation for African Unity OUA OAU
OAU (f) Organisation für Afrikanische Einheit OAU* OUA
OB (f) Ortsbatterie LB
OB outside broadcast (m) AÜ
OBO output back–off (m)
OBR overall broadcast reliability (f) (f)
OCB oil circuit breaker (m) (m)
OCDE (f) Organisation de coopération et de dévelopment économique OECD OECD
OCL on–chip lens (m) (f)
OCR optical character recognition (m) (f)
OCR overall circuit reliability (f) (f)
OCP operation control panel (m)
OD outside diameter (m) ä.D.
ODDD optical digital data drive (m)
ODGRT Oman Directorate General of Radio and Television (f) (f)
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OCDE OECD
OECD (f) Organisation für wirtschaftliche OECD OCDE
Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung
OEL (f) Ortsempfangsleitung <local reception line> (f)
OEM original equipment manufacturer (m) (m)
OEPM overall system equivalent protection margin (f) (m)
OEZ (f) Osteuropäische Zeit <East European Time> (m)
OFDM orthogonal frequency–division multiplex (m) (n)
OFRT Organismes françaises de radiodiffusion et de télévision
OG Olympic Games JO
OIRT International Radio and Television OIRT* OIRT
Organisation ( " 1992, see EBU)
OIRT (f) Organisation internationale de radiodiffusion OIRT OIRT
et de télévision ( " 1992, voir UER)
OIRT (f) Internationale Organisation für Rundfunk OIRT OIRT*
und Fernsehen ( " 1992, siehe EBU)
OMPI (f) Organisation mondiale pour la propriété intellectuelle WIPO OMPI
OMPI (f) Weltorganisation zum Schutze des geistigen Eigentums WIPO OMPI
OMT ortho–mode transducer (m) (m)
ON other networks (RDS) (m) (n)
ONU (f) Organisation des Nations Unies UN UN
OO object orienter
OOV out of vision
O/P output (f) (m)
OPEX Olympus propagation experiment (f) (n)
OQPRS offset quadrature partial–response signalling (f) (f)
OR outside rehearsal (f)
ORB (m) Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg (f)
ORF (m) Österreichischer Rundfunk (f)
ORR overall reception reliability (f)
ORTAS (f) Organisme de la Radio Télévision Arabe Syrienne (f)
ORTF (f) Office de Radiodiffusion–Télévision Française ( " 1975) (f)
ORTN (f) Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision du Niger (f)
ORTS (f) Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision du Sénégal (f)
OS operating system (m) (n)
OSA (f) onde surfacique acoustique SAW
OSCAR Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio (m) (n)
OSD on–screen display (f)
OSI Open System Interconnection (f) (f)
OSS (pl.) Olympische Sommerspiele
OSV off–screen voice (f) (f)
OTC Overseas Telecommunications Commission (Australia) (f) (f)
OTCH out–going terrestrial channel (m) (m)
OTF optical transfer function (f) OÜF
OTI/SIN Organización de la Televisión Iberoamericana / (f) (f)
Servicio Iberoamericano de Noticias
OTS Orbital Test Satellite (m) (m)
OUA (f) Organisation de l’Unité africaine OAU (f)
OÜF (f) optische Übertragungsfunktion
OVEI Österreichischer Verband der Elektronik– (f)
Industrie <Austrian industry association>
OWF optimum working frequency (f) (f)
OWS (pl.) Olympische Winterspiele
oz ounce weight (approx. 28.3 g) (m) oz
oz (f) Unze oz

p pico (10–12)
p Pico... (10–12)
p power (in watts) (f)
P power (in dB) (f)
Pa Pascal (m) (n)
PA (m) plan américain MCS
PA power amplifier (m) (m)
PA public address (f) (f)
PABX private automatic branch exchange (m) (f)
PAD programme–associated data (DAB) (m) (n)
PAL phase alternation line (m) PAL
PAL (n) zeilenweiser Phasenwechsel PAL (m)
PALplus <widescreen variant of PAL system> PALplus (m) (n)
PAM pulse–amplitude modulation (f) PAM
PAM (f) Pulsamplitudenmodulation PAM (f)
PAN– Réseau panafricain de télécommunication PANAFTEL
PAN– Pan–African Telecommunication Network PANAFTEL
PAN– Panafrikanisches Fernmeldenetz PANAFTEL PANAFTEL
PAO (m) publication assistée par ordinateur DTP
p.a.r. (m) puissance apparente rayonnée e.r.p.
p.a.r.v. (m) puissance apparente rayonnée sur antenne verticale courte e.m.r.p.
PAS public–address system (m) (n)
PAT Panamerican Televisión SA (f) (f)
PAT PC–aided teaching (SKA) (m) (n)
PATU Pan–African Telecommunication Union (f) PATU
PATU (m) Panafrikanischer Fernmeldeverein PATU (f)
PAX private automatic exchange (m) (f)
P/B (m) rapport porteuse/bruit C/N C/N
PBS Public Broadcasting Service (USA) (f) (f)
PBU photo blow–up (m) (n)
PBX private branch exchange (m) (f)
PC personal computer (m) PC
PC (m) Personalcomputer PC (m)
PC printed circuit (m) (f)
PCB printed circuit board (m) (f)
PCC (m) circuit de coordination programme (EV) PCC* PCC
PCC programme coordination circuit (EV) PCC PCC
PCC (f) Programmkoordinationsleitung PCC* PCC
P2CCD profiled peristaltic charge–coupled device (m) (f)
PCM pulse code modulation MIC PCM
PCM (f) Pulscodemodulation PCM MIC
PCN personal communications network (m) (n)
PCS personal communications service (m) (m)
PDA post–deflection accelerator (m) (m)
PDC programme delivery control (m) (n)
PDM pulse duration modulation MID PDM
PDM (f) Pulsdauermodulation PDM MID
PDN plesiochronous digital network (m) (n)
PDN Public Data Network (m)
PDP plasma display panel (m)
PDS programme delivery service (m) (m)
PE (m) Parlement Européen EP EP
PE (m) plan d’ensemble WS
PE pre–emphasis (f)
PEC photo–electric cell (f) (f)
pel (pixel) picture element (m) Pixel
p.e.p. peak envelope power (f) (f)
PERT program evaluation and review technique (m) (f)
PEPS (m) premier entré, premier sortie FIFO
PETVR Pan–European Television Research (f) (f)
PF power factor (m) (m)
PFC power factor correction (f) (f)
PFD power flux density (f) PFD
PFD (f) Leistungsflußdichte PFD (f)
PFM pulse frequency modulation (f) PFM
PFM (f) Pulsfrequenzmodulation PFM (f)
PG (m) plan général LS
PG pulse generator (m) (m)
PGE (m) plan grand ensemble VLS
PI programme identification (RDS) (m) (f)
PI programmed instruction (f) (f)
PIBA Pacific Islands Broadcasting Association (f) (f)
PIDC (m) Programme international pour le developpement (n)
de la communication (UNESCO)
PIM pulse interval modulation (f) PIM
PIM (f) Pulsintervallmodulation PIM (f)
PIN personal identification number (m)
PIN programme–item number (RDS) (m) (f)
PIP picture–in–picture
p.i.r.e. (f) puissance isotrope rayonée équivalente e.i.r.p. EIRP
pixel picture element (m) Pixel
Pixel (m) Bildpunkt pel/pixel (m)
PKCI Intervision Programme Coordination Centre ( " 1992) (m) PKCI
PKCI (n) Programmkoordinationszentrum der Intervision ( " 1992) PKCI (m)
PLA programmed logic array (m) (n)
PLC planning coordination circuit (m) PLC
PLC (f) Plankoordinationsleitung PLC (m)
PLL (f) boucle à verrouillage de phase PLL* (f)
PLL phase–locked loop PLL (f)
PLUGE picture line–up generating equipment (m) (f)
PLV presentation level video (f) (m)
PM phase modulation MP PM
PM (f) Phasenmodulation PM MP
PM (m) plan moyen MS
PM production manager (m)
PML (m) plan moyen large
PMOS p–channel metal–oxide semiconductor (m) (m)
PMR perpendicular magnetic recording (m) (f)
PMR private mobile radio (m)
PMS permitted maximum signal (level) (m)
PNB (m) produit national brut GNP
PN–ECS permanent vision network via ECS (m) (n)
PNG/BC National Broadcasting Corporation of Papua New Guinea (f) (f)
PNS (m) réseau permanent son (EV) PNS* PNS
PNS permanent network sound (EV) PNS PNS
PNS (n) Standleitungsnetz Ton (EV) PNS* PNS
PNum programme number (DAB) (m) (f)
PNV (m) réseau permanent video (EV) PNV* PNV
PNV permanent network vision (EV) PNV PNV
PNV (n) Standleitungsnetz Bild (EV) PNV* PNV
PO precision offset DP PO
PO (m) Präzisionsoffset PO
POA programme operations assistant (m) (m)
p–p peak–to–peak c–c ss
POI point of information (m) (m)
POP pont of purchase (m) (m)
POS point of sale (m) (m)
POTS “plain old telephone service” (m)
POV point of view (m)
PPM peak–programme meter (f) (n)
ppm parts per million ppm ppm
ppm (f.pl) partie par million ppm ppm
ppm (n) Teil[e] einer Million ppm ppm
PPM pulse position modulation (f) PPM
PPM (f) Pulsphasenmodulation PPM (f)
PPV pay–per–view
PR (m) plan rapproché CS, MCU
PR Polskie Radio (f) (n)
PRBS pseudo–random binary sequence (f) (n)
prf pulse repetition frequency (f) (f)
PRN (m) bruit pseudo–aleatoire PRN (n)
PRN pseudo–random noise PRN (n)
PRO–COM KBS Program Production Co. Ltd. (f) (f)
PROM programmable read–only memory (f) PROM
PROM (m) programmierbarer ROM PROM (f)
PROME– Programme for a European traffic system with highest (m) (n)
THEUS efficiency and unprecedented safety (Eureka, " 1994)
prr pulse repetition rate (m) (f)
PRS Performing Rights Society (f) (f)
PRT Polskie Radio e Telewizja (f) (f)
PS programme service name (RDS) (m) (m)
PSB public–service broadcasters (m) (m)
PSC portable single camera (f) (f)
PSC programme switching centre (m) (n)
PSDN packet switched digital network (m) (n)
PSI pound–force per square inch (f) lbf/in2
PSK phase shift keying MDP PSK
PSK (f) Phasenumtastung PSK MDP
PSM pulse step modulation (f) PAM
PSN public switched network (m) (n)
PSTN public switched telephone network RPTC, RTC (n)
PT Project Team (ETSI) (f) (n)
PTC Pacific Telecommunication Council (m) (m)
PTC Pakistan Television (f) (f)
PTC positive temperature coefficient (m) (m)
PTP point–to–point
PTR (m) plan très rapproché VTS
PTT (m.pl) Postes, Télégraphes et Téléphones PTT PTT
PTT Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones PTT PTT
PTT (f) Post– und Fernmeldewesen PTT PTT
PTV Pakistan Television Corporation Ltd. (f) (f)
PTY programme type (RDS) (m) (m)
PTy programme type (DAB) (m) (m)
PU power unit (f) (f)
PUG Preliminary Users’ Guide (m) (n)
PV preview PV
PV (f) prévisualisation (“preview” (m)) PV
PWB printed wiring board (m) (n)
PWM pulse width modulation (f) PDM
pX, PX peak power (watts, dB) (f) (f)
pY, PY mean power (watts, dB) (f) (f)
pZ, PZ carrier power (watts, dB) (f) (f)

QAM quadrature amplitude modulation MAQ QAM
QCIF quarter common image format (videophony) (m)
QIL quad in–line (m)
QP quadruple play (magnetic tape) (m)
QPSK quaternary (quadrature) phase shift keying MDP QPSK
QTBS Qatar Television and Broadcasting Service (f) (f)

Thread Starter
25th June 2008
Old 25th June 2008
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Joined: Dec 2006
Location: NY NY
Posts: 1,589
My Recordings/Credits

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more definitions 8

R request transmission (EV) R R
R (f) transmission demandée (EV) R R
R (f) angemeldete Übertragung (EV) R R
RACE rapid action cutting equipment (m)
RACE R&D in Advanced Communications Technologies in Europe (m) (n)
rad radian (m) rad
rad (m) Radiant rad (m)
radar radio detection and ranging (m) Radar
Radar (n) Funkortung radar (m)
RAI RAI–Radiotelevisione Italiana (f) (f)
RAID redundant array of independent drives (m)
RALU register and arithmetic unit (f) (f)
RAM random–access memory (f) RAM
RAM (m) Schreib–Lese–Speicher RAM (f)
RARC Regional Administrative Radio Conference (ITU) CARR RARC
RARC (f) Regionale Funkverwaltungskonferenz RARC CARR
RAS Radiotelevisione Azienda Speciale (f) (f)
RAS (m. pl) reportages d’actualités par satellite SNG
RASCOM Regional African Satellite Communication System (m) (n)
RAZ remettre à zéro RZ
RB Radio Bangladesh (f) (m)
RB (n) Radio Bremen (f)
RBC Rhodesia Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
RBDS Radio Broadcast Data System (USA) (m) (n)
RBW red–blue–white
RC radio–controlled
RC resistance–capacitance RC–
RC– Widerstands/Kapazitäts– RC
RC resistance coupled
RCCB residual current circuit breaker (m)
RCP right–hand circular polarization (f)
RCTL resistor–capacitor logic (f)
RCU remote control unit (f) (f)
R&D research and development (f) F/E
R–DAT rotating head digital audio cassette recorder (m) (m)
RDP Radiodifusao Portuguesa (f) (f)
RDP RACE definition phase (f) (f)
RDRS (f) Radio– und Fernsehgesellschaft der Deutschen (f)
und Rätoromanischen Schweiz
RDS Radio Data System (m) RDS
RDS (n) Radiodatensystem RDS (m)
RDU receive decoder unit URD (f)
RDY (f) Radiodiffusion du Dahomey (f)
REI Rede de Emisoras Independientes (Spain) (m) (f)
RF radio–frequency HF
Rfa reserved for future addition (DAB) (m)
RFC radio–frequency choke (f) (f)
RFE Radio Free Europe (f) (n)
RFI radio–frequency interference (m) (f)
RFP request for proposals (f)
RFQ request for quotations (f)
Rfu reserved for future use (DAB) (m)
RGB red, green, blue RVB RGB
RGB Rot–Grün–Blau RGB RVB
RHC right–hand circular (polarization) (f)
RI Radio Iran (f) (n)
RIAA Record Industry Association of America (f) (f)
RIAS (m) Rundfunk im amerikanischen Sektor von Berlin ( "1993) (f)
RIK Radiophonikon Idryma Kyproy (Cyprus) (f) (f)
RISC reduced instruction set computing
RK Radio Kuwait (f) (n)
RL (f) Radiodiffusion Libanaise (f)
RL (f) Radio Liban (n)
RLC run–length coding (m) (n)
RLE (m) réseau local d’entreprise LAN
RLE run–length encoding (m) (n)
RMC (f) Radio Monte–Carlo (Monaco) (n)
RML multilateral request transmission RML RML
RML (f) transmission demandée multilatéralement RML RML
RML (f) angemeldete multilaterale Übertragung RML RML
RMS resource management system (m) (n)
RMS root mean square eff eff.
RN Radio Nacional (Brazil) (f) (n)
RNE Radio Nacional de España SA (f) (n)
RNI (m) réseau numérique intégré IDN
RNIS (m) réseau numérique avec intégration des services ISDN
RNRZ randomized NRZ (m)
RNS remote network switching (EV) (f) (n)
RNT (f) Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (f)
RNZ Radio New Zealand (f) (n)
ROC regional operations centre (UKIBA) (m) (n)
ROM read–only memory (f) ROM
ROM (m) Nur–Lese–Speicher ROM (f)
RP radio paging (m) RP
RP (n) Personenruf–Funk RP (m)
RP rear projection (m) (f)
RP road pricing (f) (f)
RPC Panama Televisión (f) (f)
rpm revolutions per minute tpm U/min
RPOA recognised private operating agency EPR (f)
RPU remote pick–up unit (f)
RR (m) Règlement des Radiocommunications RR FuVD
RR Radio Regulations RR FuVD
RRI Radio Republik Indonesia (f) (f)
RRO radio receive only (terminal) (m)
RSA Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (f)
RSP (f) réunion spéciale préparatoire (UIT) SPM
RT Radio Tanzania (f) (f)
RT radio text (RDS) (m) RT
RT (m) Radiotext (RDS) RT (m)
RT reverberation time (m) (f)
RT radiotelephony (f) FuFeD
RTA (f) Radiodiffusion–Télévision Algérienne (f)
RTBF (f) Radio–Télévision Belge de la Communauté Culturelle Française (f)
RTC (f) Radiodiffusion–Télévision Congolaise (f)
RTC réseau téléphonique commuté PSTN
RTCE real–time channel evaluation (f)
RTDj (f) Radiodiffusion Télévision de Djibouti (f)
RTE Radio Telefis Eireann (f) (f)
RTG (f) Radiodiffusion Télévision Gabonaise (f)
RTHK Radio Television Hong Kong (f) (f)
RTI (f) Radiodiffusion Télévision Ivoirienne (f)
RTI road transport informatics (f) (f)
RTL (f) Radio–Télé–Luxembourg (n)
RTL resistor–transistor logic (f) (f)
RTM (f) Radiodiffusion–Télévision Marocaine (f)
RTMg (f) Radiodiffusion–Télévision de Madagascar (f)
RTM RadioTelevision Malaysia (f) (f)
RTNM Televiziunea Nationala din Moldova (f) (f)
RTO Radiotelevidenie Ostankino (Russia) (f) (n)
RTOS real–time operating system (m)
RTP Radiotelevisao Portuguesa EP (f) (f)
RTPC (m) réseau téléphonique public commuté PSTN
RTR real–time registration (f) (f)
RTR Rossijskoe Teleradio (Russia) (f) (n)
RTS ready to send (f)
RTS Royal Television Society (UK) (f)
RTS (f) Société Nationale de Radiodiffusion Télévision Sénégalaise (f)
RTSI Radiotelevisione della Swizzera Italiana (f) (f)
RTSR (f) Radio–Télévision de la Suisse Romande (f)
RTT (f) Radiodiffusion–Télévision Tunisienne (f)
RTTY radio teleprinter (m) FuFS
RTV Rediffusion Television Ltd. (UK) (f) (f)
RTVBa Radio Television Bandeirantes (Brazil) (f) (f)
RTVBH Radiotelevizija Bosne i Hercegovine (f) (f)
RTVE Radiotelevisión Española (f) (f)
RTVR Radioteleviziunea Romana (f) (f)
RTVSH Radioteleviosione Shqiptar (f) (f)
RTVSLO Radiotelevizija Slovenija (f) (f)
RUN request unilateral transmission (EV) RUN RUN
RUN (f) transmission demandée uniletaralement (EV) RUN RUN
RUN (f) angemeldete unilaterale Übertragung (EV) RUN RUN
RUV Rikisutvarpid (Iceland) (f) (f)
RV Radio Vatican (f) (n)
RVB rouge, vert, bleu RGB RGB
RVS remote video surveillence (f)
RWM read–write memory (f) (n)
rx receiver (m) RX
RX (m) Empfänger rx (m)
RZ return to zero RAZ

s second (f) s
s (f) Sekunde s
S Siemens (m) (n)
SABC South African Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
SABG Satellite Broadcasting Advisory Group (m) (f)
SABTS Saudi Arabian Broadcasting and Television Service (f) (f)
SACD Society of Dramatic Authors and Composers (f) (f)
SAR specific absorption rate (m) (f)
SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite–aided Tracking System (m) (n)
SAW surface acoustic wave OSA (f)
SB– Schmalband– NB BE
S/B (m) rapport signal/bruit S/N S/N
SB–FM (f) Schmalband–Frequenzmodulation NBFM MFBE
SBSA Special Broadcasting Service (Australia) (f) (f)
S/C subcarrier (f)
SCA subsidiary communications allocation (f) (f)
SCART (m) Syndicat des constructeurs d’appareils radio (n)
récepteurs et téléviseurs (France)
SCCA service component conditional access (DAB) (m) (m)
SCCN (m) Réseau de coordination et de contrôle (Eutelsat) SCCN (n)
SCCN System coordination and control network (Eutelsat) SCCN (n)
ScF scale factor (DAB) (m) (m)
ScF–CRC audio scale factor error check (DAB) (m) (f)
ScFSI scale factor select information (DAB) (f) (f)
SCH satellite channel (m) (m)
SC–HDTV spectrum–compatible HDTV (f) (n)
ScId service component identifier (DAB) (f) (m)
SCMS serial copy management system (m)
SCPC single channel per carrier (m) SCPC
SCPC (n) Ein Kanal pro Träger SCPC (m)
SCPT single carrier per transponder (m)
SCR silicon controlled rectifier (m) (m)
SCSI small computer system interface (f)
SCTy service component type (DAB) (m) (m)
SCU semi close–up SCU
SCU (f) Halbnahe SCU
SDA software development automation (f) (f)
SDH synchronous digital hierarchy (f)
SDI serial digital interface (f) (n)
SDR special drawing right DTS SZR
SDR (m) Süddeutscher Rundfunk (f)
SDTV standard definition television (f)
SECAM (m) séquentiel couleur à mémoire SECAM
SECAM (n) aufeinanderfolgende Farbe zur Speicherung SECAM
SEDAT spectrum–efficient digital audio technology (f) (n)
SEFN start/end frame number (DAB) (m) (f)
SEG (m) special effects generator
SEPMAG separate magnetic sound (m) SEPMAG
SEPMAG (m) separater Magnetton SEPMAG (m)
SEPTOPT separate optical sound (m) SEPOPT
SEPOPT (m) separater Lichtton SEPOPT (m)
SER Sociedad Española de Radiodifusión (f) (f)
SES (f) Société Européenne des Satellites (f)
SFB (m) Sender Freies Berlin (f)
SFN single–frequency network (m) (n)
SFX special effects (m. pl)
S/H sample and hold
SHF super high frequencies (3 – 30 GHz) B.cm SHF
SHF (f) Zentimeterwelle (3 – 30 GHz) SHF B.cm
SI service identification (f) (f)
SI shift in
SI (m) système international d’unités SI SI
SI international system of units SI* SI
SI (n) Internationales Einheitensystem SI SI*
SI superimpose
SId service identifier (DAB) (f) (m)
SIERE (m) Syndicat des industries électroniques de (n)
reproduction et d’enregistrement (France)
SIMAV– (m) Syndicat des industries de matériels (n)
ELEC audiovisuels electroniques (France)4
SIN Spanish International Network (f) (n)
SIS (m) son intégré à la synchronisation SIS* SIS
SIS sound–in–syncs SIS SIS
SIS (n) Ton im Synchronsignal SIS* SIS
SITE Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (India) (f) (n)
SITELESC(m) Syndicat des industries de tubes électroniques (n)
et de semiconducteurs (France)
SIU set in use
SLBC Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
SM studio manager (m) (m)
S–MAC studio MAC (m) (n)
SMARTS selective multiple address radio and television service (m) (n)
SMATV satellite master–antenna television (f) (n)
SMP software motion picture (f) (n)
. Anciennement SCART et SIERE.
SMPS switched–mode power supply (f) (n)
SMPTE Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (USA) (f) (f)
SMR signal–to–mask ratio (DAB) (m) (n)
SMU signal monitoring unit (f) (f)
S/N signal–to–noise ratio S/B S/N
S/N (n) Signal/Rausch–Verhältnis S/N S/B
SNG satellite news–gathering JES, RAS
SNR signal–to–noise ratio S/B S/N
SNV satellite news–gathering van (m) (m)
SNV spot nuisance value (f) (m)
SO shift out (m)
SOF sound on film (m) (m)
SOFR– (f) Société française d’études et de réalisations (f)
ATEV d’équipements de radiodiffusion et de la télévision
SOFRE– (f) Société française d’études et de realisations (f)
COM d’équipements de télécommunications
SOG Summer Olympic Games (m.pl) OSS
SOH start of header (m) (m)
SOM start of message (m)
SOS silicon–on–sapphire (m) (n)
SOT start of tape (m)
SOVT sound on video tape (m)
SP space (m) (m)
SP standard play (magnetic tape) (n)
SP superior performance (f)
SPEC spatial error correction (f) (f)
SPECTRE special–purpose extra channels for terrestrial (m) (n)
radiocommunications (resolution enhancements)
SPEG Still Picture Experts Group (ISO) (m)
SPER (m) Syndicat des industries de matériel professionel (n)
électronique et radioélectrique (France)
SPG synchronizing pulse generator (m) (m)
SPK Savezna privredna Komora (Yugoslavia) (f) (f)
SPL sound pressure level (m) (m)
SPM scratch–pad memory (m) (m)
SPM special preparatory meeting (ITU) RSP (n)
SPN subscriber premises network (m) (n)
SPOT– (m) <commercial agent of French (n)
IMAGE earth–observation satellite data>
SR (m) Saarländischer Rundfunk (f)
SR Slovensky Rozhlas (f) (n)
SR Sveriges Radio (Sweden) (f) (m)
SRC Swedish Radio Company (f) (f)
SRF (f) Société Radio France (f)
SRG (m) Schweizerische Radio– und Fernsehgesellschaft SSR
SRL Swedish association of radio consumer electronics suppliers (f) (f)
SRS satellite remote switching (EV) (f) (f)
SRS (m) service de radio par satellite
SRT (f) Schule für Rundfunktechnik (f)
<German broadcasters’ training centre>
SS Spitze–Spitze p–p c–c
SSampli solid–state amplifier (m) (m)
SSAR solid–state audio recorder (m) (m)
SSB single sideband BLU SSB
SSB (f) Einseitenbandmodulation SSB BLU
SSM serial storage media (m)
SSM spread–spectrum modulation MES (f)
SSMA spread spectrum multiple access AMES (m)
SSOG Satellite System Operating Guide (Intelsat) (f) (n)
SSR (f) Société Suisse de Radiodiffusion et Télévision SRG
SSR solid–state recorder (m) (m)
SS–TDMA satellite–switched TDMA (m) (f)
SSVR solid–state video recorder (m) (m)
ST Scottish Television (UK) (f) (n)
ST Slovenska Televizia (f) (n)
STBC Swaziland Television Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
STC single time code (m) (m)
STD subscriber trunk dialling (m) (f)
STL studio–transmitter link (f) (f)
STOC–TV Satellite Technical and Operational Committee – Television (m) (n)
STP standard temperature and pressure (f) NTP
STR small satellite television receiver (m) (m)
STS Sudan Television Service (f) (n)
STV subscription television (f)
STVS Surinam TV (f) (n)
STX start of text (m) (m)
SUB substitute (m)
SubCh sub–channel of MSC (DAB) (m) (m)
SubChId sub–channel identifier (DAB) (m) (m)
SubId sub–identifier (of a transmitter – DAB) (m) (m)
S–VHS Super VHS (m) (n)
SVT Sveriges Television AB (f) (n)
S/W– Schwarz/Weiß– B/W N/B
SWF (m) Südwestfunk (f)
SWG Standard Wire Gauge (m) (f)
SWL safe working load (f) (f)
SWP safe working pressure (f) (m)
SWR standing–wave ratio TOS SWR
SWR (n) Stehwellenverhältnis SWR TOS
SYCEP (m) Syndicat des industries de composants (n)
électroniques passifs (France)
SYN synchronous idle (m) (m)
SZR (n) Sonderziehungsrecht SDR DTS

T tera (1012)
T Tera... (1012)
T Tesla (m) (n)
TA traffic announcement (RDS) (m) (n)
TAB Technical Assistance Board (UN) BAT TAB
TAB (n) Büro für technische Hilfe (der UNO) TAB BAT
TAC Telecommunications Advisory Committee (ESA) (m) (n)
TARIF television apparatus for the rectification of (m) (n)
indifferent film (BBC)
TASI time assignment speech interpolation (f) (f)
TAXI transparent asynchronous Xmitter/receiver interface (f) (n)
TBC time–base corrector (m) (m)
TBS Tokyo Broadcasting System Inc. (f) (f)
T/C telecine (film scanner) TC FAT
TC (m) télécinéma T/C FAT
TC (m) télécommande (télécontrol)
TCA terrain clearance angle (m) (m)
TCC (m) circuit de coordination technique (EV) TCC* TCC
TCC technical coordination circuit (EV) TCC TCC
TCC (f) technische Koordinationsleitung (EV) TCC* TCC
TCC telemetry and telecommand (f) (f)
TCD transformée en cosinus disctète DCT
TCG time code generator (m)
TCH terrestrial channel (m) (m)
TCI time compressed integration (m) (f)
TCId type component identifier (DAB) (m) (m)
TCM time compression multiplexing (m) (n)
TCR time code reader (m)
TDA tunnel diode amplifier (m)
TDC transparent data channel (RDS) (m) (m)
TDD time division duplex (m) (n)
TDF (f) TéléDiffusion de France (f)
TDM time division multiplex MRT TDM
TDM (n) Zeitmultiplex TDM MRT
TDMA time division multiple access AMRT TDMA
TDMA (f) Mehrfachzugriff mit Zeitmultiplex TDMA AMRT
TDMC time–division multiplex configuration (f) (f)
TDS (f) télévision directe par satellite
TDT (f) Télédiffusion Tunisienne (f)
TEB (m) taux d’erreurs binaires BER BER
TEC (m) temps de l’Europe centrale CET
TEC Trans European Channel (m) (m)
TEC (m) transistor à effet de champ FET FET
TEKO (f) Technische Kommission (ARD/ZDF) (m)
<ARD/ZDF Joint Technical Committee>
TEM (f) onde électromagnétique transversale TEM TEM
TEM transverse electromagnetic wave TEM TEM
TEM (f) transversal–elektromagnetische Welle TEM TEM
TES transportable earth station (f) (f)
TEUREM (f) Tarification pour l’Europe et le Bassin TEUREM
Méditerranéen (CCITT)
TEUREM Tariffs for Europe and the Mediterranean Basin (CCITT) TEUREM
TF (f) Trägerfrequenz <carrier frequency> (f)
TF1 (f) Télévision française 1 (n)
TFM Tokyo FM Broadcasting Co. Ltd. (f) (f)
TFR (f) transformation de Fourier rapide FFT
TG Task group (m) (f)
TGP (m) très gros plan BCU
THD total harmonic distortion (f) (f)
THT (f) très haute tension EHT
TI terrestrial interface (f)
TID travelling ionospheric disturbance (f) (f)
TII transmitter identification information (DAB) (f) (f)
TKCI Intervision Technical Coordination Centre ( " 1992) (m) TKCI
TKCI (n) Technisches Koordinationszentrum der Intervision ( " 1992) TKCI (m)
TL (f) Télé Liban (f)
TM technical manager (m)
TM telemetry (satellites) (f)
T–MAC terrestrial MAC (m) (n)
TMC (f) Télé Monte Carlo (n)
TMC traffic message channel (RDS) (m) (m)
TMG (m) temps moyen de Greenwich GMT
TMId transport mechanism identifier (DAB) (m) (m)
TMN telecommunications management network (m) (n)
TO transistor outline (f)
TOC Technical Operations Centre (satellites) (m) (n)
TOC Television Operations Centre (m)
TOM technical operations manager (m) (m)
TOP table of pages (m) (f)
TOP (m) tube à onde progressive TWT
TOPICS total online programme and information control system (BBC) (m) (n)
TOPSY telecine operation programming system (BBC) (m) (n)
TOS (m) taux d’ondes stationnaires SWR
TP telephony (f)
TP (m) Tiefpaß LP
TP traffic–programme identification (TP) (m) (f)
TP triple play (magnetic tape) (n)
TPC mixed technical/programme coordination circuit (m) (f)
TPG test pattern generator (m)
tpm (m.pl) tours par minute rpm U/min
TPP Telecommunication Preparatory Programme (ESA) (m) (n)
TPP Transmission Planning Procedures (EBU) (m) TPP
TPP (n) Übertragungsplanungssystem (EBU) TPP (m)
T/R transmit/receive
TR tele–recording (m) (f)
TRMS TDMA reference and monitoring station (Eutelsat) TRMS (f)
TRMS (f) Station de référence et de surveillance TDMA (Eutelsat) TRMS (f)
TRRL Transport and Road Research Laboratory (UK) (m) (n)
TRT Türkiye Radyo–Televizyon Kurumu (Turkey) (f) (n)
TSF (f) télégraphie sans fil WT WT
TSG test signal generator GST
TSI Radiotelevisione della Svizzera Italiana (f) (f)
TTC&M telemetry, telemetry, command (control) (f)
and monitoring (satellites)
TTEG (m) Groupe exploratoire des tarifs de télécommunications TTEG (f)
TTEG Telecommunications Tariffs Exploratory Group TTEG (f)
TTL transistor–transistor logic (f) (f)
TTVS (f) Transmissions télévisuelles et sonores (CEPT) TTVS (f)
TTVS Television and Sound Transmissions (CEPT) TTVS (f)
TTY teletypewriter (f) FS
TU (m) temps universel UT
TuBS Turner Broadcasting System Inc. (f) (f)
TV television (f) TV–
TV– (n) Fernseh–
TVA (f) taxe à la valeur ajoutée VAT
TVB Television Broadcast Ltd. (f) (f)
TVC television colour
TVC Televisión Nacional de Chile (f) (f)
TVCSM (f) Surveillance du système de communications TVCSM (m)
du service de télévision (Eutelsat)
TVCSM Television communications system monitor (Eutelsat) TVCSM (m)
TVE Televisión Española (Spain) (f) (f)
TVG TV Globo (Brazil) (f) (f)
TVH television for the handicapped (f) (n)
TVHD télévision à haute définition HDTV HDTV
TVI television interference (f) (f)
TVNZ Television New Zealand Ltd. (f) (f)
TVP Telewizja Polska (f) (n)
TVP Polskie Radio i Telewizja (Poland) (f) (n)
TVRI Televisi Republik Indonesia (f) (n)
TVRO television receive–only (f) (n)
TVSC (f) voie de télévision par satellite (Eutelsat) TVSC (m)
TVSC Television satellite channel (Eutelsat) TVSC (m)
TWR Trans World Radio (f) (n)
TWT travelling–wave tube TOP WFR
TWTA travelling–wave tube amplifier ATOP
tx transmitter (m) TX
TX (m) Sender tx (m)
TXPR transponder (m) (m)

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UAA universal access arrangements (m.pl) (pl.)
UAI (f) Union astronomique internationale IAU
UAERTV United Arab Emirates Radio and Television (f) (n)
UAL (f) unité arithmétique et logique ALU
UAPT African Postal and Telecommunications Union UAPT* APTU
UAPT (f) Union Africaine des Postes et Télécommunications UAPT APTU
UART universal asynchronous receiver–transmitter (m) (m)
UCCTV Corporación de Televisión de la Universidad (f) (f)
Catolica de Chile
UCE (m) unité de compte européenne EUA
UDS universal data system (m) (n)
UDTV ultra definition television (f) (n)
UE (f) Union Européenne (1994 " , see CE) EU EU
UER Union Européenne de Radiodiffusion (1950 " 1992) EBU EBU
UER Union Européenne de Radio–Télévision (1993 " ) EBU EBU
UHF ultra high frequencies (300 – 3000 MHz) B.dm UHF
UHF (f) Dezimeterwelle (300 – 3000 MHz) UHF B.dm
UIE (f) Union internationale des Editeurs IPA IVU
UEP unequal error protection (DAB) (f) (m)
UIR (f) Union Internationale de Radiodiffusion ( " 1950) IBU IBU
UIT (f) Union internationale des télécommunications ITU UIT
UIT (f) Internationaler Fernmeldeverein ITU UIT*
UKIB United Kingdom Independent Broadcasting (f) (f)
UKIBA Independent Broadcasting Authority (UK) (f) (f)
UKW (f) Ultrakurzwelle VHF B.m
ULA uncommitted logic array (m) (m)
ULCRA Unión Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Radiodifusión (f) (f)
U/min (f) Umdrehung[en] pro Minute rpm tpm
UMTS universal mobile telecommunications system (m) (m)
UN United Nations ONU UN
UN (f) Vereinte Nationen UN ONU
UNBAL unbalanced–to–balanced
UNESCO (f) Organisation des Nations Unies pour UNESCO* UNESCO
l’éducation, la science et la culture
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific UNESCO UNESCO
and Cultural Organisation
UNESCO (f) Organisation der Vereinten Nationen für UNESCO* UNESCO
Bildung, Wissenschaft und Kultur
UNI user–to–network interface (f) (n)
UNIPEDE (f) Union internationale des producteurs et UNIPEDE UNIPEDE
distributeurs d’énergie électrique
UNIPEDE International Union of Producers and UNIPEDE* UNIPEDE
Distributers of Electrical Energy
UNIPEDE (f) Internationaler Vereinigung der Erzeuger UNIPEDE UNIPEDE*
und Verteiler elektrischer Energie
UNO United Nations Organization ONU UNO
UNO (f) Organisation der Vereinten Nationen UNO ONU
UNTV United Nations Television (f) (n)
UPAT (f) Union Panafricaine de télécommunications PATU PATU
UPC universal product code (DAB) (m) (m)
UPI United Press International (f) (f)
UPITN United Press International + ITN (f) (n)
UPS uninterruptible power supply (f) USV
UPT universal personal telecommunications (f) (f)
UR Sveriges Utbildningsradio Ab (f) (n)
URD (f) unité de réception décodage RDU
URSI (f) Union radio–scientifique internationale URSI URSI
URSI International Scientific Radio Union URSI* URSI
URSI (f) Internationale Radiowissenschaftliche Vereinigung URSI URSI*
URTI (f) Université Radio–Télévision Internationale URTI
URTI (f) Internationale Rundfunk– und Fernsehuniversität URTI
URTNA (f) Union des radiodiffusions et télévisions URTNA URTNA
nationales d’Afrique
URTNA Union of National Radio and Television URTNA* URTNA
Organisations of Africa
URTNA (f) Vereinigung der nationalen afrikanischen URTNA URTNA*
Organisationen des Rundfunks und Fernsehens
US unit separator (m) (m)
USAR (f) Utilisation des systèmes de télécommunications par satellite pour (f)
l’acheminement de signaux du service de radiodiffusion (CEPT)
USART universal synchronous–asynchronous receiver–transmitter (m) (m)
USB upper sideband (f) (n)
USCH up–link satellite channel (f) (m)
USIA United States Information Agency (f) USIA
USIA (n) Informationsbüro der Vereinigten Staaten USIA (f)
USRT universal synchronous receiver–transmitter (m) (m)
USV (f) unterbrechungslose Stromversorgung UPS
UT universal time TU UT
UTC (f) Weltzeit UT TU
UTC (m) temps universel coordonné UTC UTC
UTC coordinated universal time UTC UTC
UTC (f) Weltzeit UTC UTC
UUT unit under test (f)
UV ultra–violet UV, UV–
UV, UV– ultraviolett, Ultraviolett... UV
Ü–Wagen (m) Übertragungswagen

V vertical V–
V– Vertikal– V
V Volt (m) (n)
VA volt–amp VA
VA (n) Voltampere VA
VADIS Video–Audio Digital Interactive System (Eureka) (m)
VANDA video and audio (circuit) (m)
VANS value–added network service (m) (n)
Varistor (m) spannungsabhängiger Widerstand varistor (m)
VAS value–added service (m) (n)
VAT value–added tax TVA
VBI vertical–blanking interval (m) (n)
VBN (n) Vorläufer–Breitband–Netz <pilot broadband network> (m)
VCO (m) oscillateur commandé en tension VCO (m)
VCO voltage–controlled oscillator OCT (m)
VCR videocassette recorder (m) (m)
VCS very close shot PTR (f)
VCU variable correction unit (f) (f)
VDE (m) Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker e. V. (f)
<German association of electrical engineers>
VDI (m) Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e. V. (f)
<German association of engineers>
VDR video disk recorder (m) (m)
VDR voltage–dependent resistor (f) Varistor
VDT video dual tone (m)
VDT visual (video) display terminal (m) (n)
VDU visual display unit AV (f)
VEDA video equalizing distribution amplifier (m)
VEI (m) Vocabulaire Electrotechnique International IEV IEV
VES video encryption system (m) (n)
VF variable frequency (f) (f)
VF video frequency (f) (f)
VF voice frequency (f) NF
VFR video film recording (m) (f)
VFX video effects (m. pl)
VGA video graphics adapter (m)
VHD video home disk (m) (f)
VHF very high frequencies (30 – 300 MHz) B.m UKW
VHPIC very high performance integrated circuit (m) (m)
VHS video home system (m) (n)
VHSIC very high speed integrated circuit (m) (m)
VI volume indication (f)
VIS video information system (m)
VITC vertical–interval time–code (m) (m)
VITS vertical–interval test signal (m) (n)
VJ video jockey (m)
VLF very low frequency (10 – 30 kHz) (f) VLF
VLF (pl.) Längstwellen (10 – 30 kHz) VLF (f)
VLS very long shot PGE (f)
VLSI very large–scale integration (f) (f)
VMC vector motion compensation (f) (f)
VMI voltage moyen de l’image APL
VMOS vertical metal–oxide semiconductor (m) (m)
VMS variable message sign (f) (f)
VNA video noise amplifier (m)
VNR video noise reduction (f) (f)
VoA Voice of America of the International Communication Agency (f) (f)
VO voice over
VOD video–on–demand (f) (n)
VOK Voice of Kenya (f) (f)
VOM volt–ohmmeter (m) (n)
VOR (m) radiophare d’alignement omnidirectionel VHF VOR (n)
VOR VHF omnidirectional radio range VOR (n)
VPS Video Program System (m) VPS
VPS (n) Videoprogrammsystem VPS (m)
VQ vector quantization (f) (f)
VR virtual reality (f) (f)
VRAM video random access memory (f)
VSAT very small aperture terminal (f) (f)
VSB vestigial sideband BLR
VSB–2PSK vestigial sideband two–state phase–shift keying (f)
VSWR voltage standing–wave ratio (m)
VT vacuum tube (m) (f)
VT vertical tabulation (f) (f)
VT video–tape (f) (n)
VTO voltage–tuned oscillator (m)
VTR video tape–recorder (m) MAZ
VTVM vacuum–tube voltmeter (m) (n)
Vtx (m) Videotext <teletext>
VU vision units (EBU) (f) (f)
VU volume unit (f) (f)
VU–Meter (n) Aussteuerungsmesser
VUI video user interface (f)
VV Venevisión – Corporación Venezolana de Televisión (f) (f)
VVM valve voltmeter (m) (n)
VZ (f) La Voix de Zaïre (f)

W Watt (m) (n)
WA wide angle
WACC World Association of Christian Communication (f) WACC
WACC (f) Weltvereinigung für christliche Kommunikation WACC (f)
WAN wide–area network (m)
WARC World Administrative Radio Conference (ITU) CAMR WARC
WARC (f) Weltfunkverwaltungskonferenz (ITU) WARC CAMR
Wb Weber (m) (n)
WBFM wide–band frequency modulation MFLB BB–FM
WDR (m) Westdeutscher Rundfunk (f)
WFC World Football Cup (f) (m)
WFR (f) Wanderfeldröhre TWT TOP
WG wave–guide (m) WL
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization (UN) OMPI OMPI
WL (m) Wellenleiter WG (m)
WLAN wireless local area network (m)
WMRA write many, read always
WOG Winter Olympic Games (m.pl) OWS
WOM write–only memory (f) (m)
WORM write once, read many (multiple) (f) (m)
wrt with respect to betr.
WS wide shot PE
WT wireless telegraphy TSF WT
WT (f) Wechselstromtelegrafie WT TSF
WTN Worldwide Television News (f) (f)
WUI Western Union International (f) (f)
W–VHS wide–screen VHS (m) (n)
WYSIWYG “what you see is what you get”

X–band 6/7 GHz frequency range (m)
XGA extended graphics array (m)
X–PAD extended programme–associated data (DAB) (m) (n)
XPD cross–polar discrimination XPD (f)
XPD (f) discrimination de polarisation XPD (f)

Y luminance component (m)
Y– Luminanz–
YARTV Yemen Arab Republic Television (f) (f)
YLE Ob Yleisradio Ab (Finland) (f) (f)
YTV Yorkshire Television (UK) (f) (f)
YUV luminance, B–Y, R–Y

ZA zero adjust (m) (m)
ZB (f) Zentralbatterie
ZBC Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (f) (f)
ZBS Zambia Broadcasting Service (f) (f)
ZDF (n) Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (f)
ZF zero frequency (f) (f)
ZF (f) Zwischenfrequenz IF FI
ZI–AM (n) Zusatzinformationen über AM–Sender
<AM data transmission system>
ZVEI (m) Zentralverband Elektrotechnik– und Elektronikindustrie e. V. (f)

Thread Starter
25th June 2008
Old 25th June 2008
georgia's Avatar
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georgia is offline
yet more definitions - a link

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26th June 2008
Old 26th June 2008
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Joined: Dec 2006
Location: NY NY
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something I found that talks to drop vs nondrop

Frame rate is the rate at which video plays back frames. Black and white video ran at a true 30 frames per second (fps). When the color portion of the signal was added, video engineers were forced—for various technical reasons related to the physical circuits—to slow the rate down to 29.97 fps. This slight slowdown of video playback leads to distortions in the measurement of video vs. real time. Video is measured in indivisible units called frames. Real time is measured in hours, minutes, and seconds. Unfortunately, a second is not evenly divisible by 29.97 fps. Let's look at the mathematical relationships involved here:

A frame rate of 29.97 fps is 99.9% as fast as 30 fps. In other words, it is 0.1% (or one-thousandth) slower:

29.97 fps / 30 fps = .999 (or 99.9%)

100 - .999 = 0.1% slower

Conversely, a frame rate of 30 fps is 0.1% (or one-thousandth) faster than 29.97:

30 fps / 29.97 fps = 1.001 (or 100.1%)

(The actual value is 1.001,001,001, ..., 001 repeating infinitely. 1.001 is enough precision for our calculation, given that the next significant digit is the one-millionths place. No video program is long enough that the stray millionths of a second per hour will add up enough to throw the frame count off again.)

One hour's worth of "true 30 fps" video contains exactly 108,000 frames:
(30 frames/sec) * (3600 sec/hour) = 108,000 frames

However, if you play back 108,000 frames at 29.97 fps, it will take longer than 1 hour to play:

(108,000 frames) / (29.97 frames/sec) = 3,603.6 seconds = 1 hour and 3.6 seconds
(Actual value is 3,603.603,603, ..., 603 repeating infinitely.

Again, 3,603.6 is sufficient for video timecode, given that
the next loss of precision is three one-thousandths of a second per hour. You would have to make a video over 11 hours long before you were off again by a single frame.)

This is notated in timecode as 01:00:03:18. Thus, after an hour it is 108 frames too long. Once again, we see the relationship of 108 frames out of 108,000, or one-thousandth.

Now let's apply that discrepancy to 1 minute of video. One minute, or 60 seconds, of 30 fps video contains 1800 frames. One-thousandth of that is 1.8. Therefore, by the end of 1 minute you are off by 1.8 frames.

Remember, however, that frames are indivisible; you cannot adjust by a fraction of a frame. You cannot adjust by 1.8 frames per minute, but you can adjust by 18 full frames per 10 minutes.

Because 10 minutes is not evenly divisible by 18 frames, we use drop-frame timecode and drop two frame numbers every minute; by the ninth minute, you have dropped all 18 frame numbers. No frames need to be dropped the tenth minute. That is how drop-frame timecode works. When you use drop-frame timecode, Premiere 5.x renumbers the first two frames of every minute, except for every tenth minute.

NTSC and the drop-frame numbering system

There are three fundamentally important things to remember about NTSC and drop-frame timecode:
• NTSC video always runs at 29.97 frames/second.
• 29.97 video can be notated in either drop-frame or non-drop-frame format.
• Drop-frame timecode only drops numbers that refer to the frames, and not the actual frames.
We will examine the ramifications of these rules below.

NTSC video always runs at 29.97 frames/second

Unlike "true 30 fps" video, an hour's worth of NTSC video does not have 108,000 frames in it. It has 99.9% as many frames, or 107,892 frames, as described earlier. Again, at the rate of 1.8 less per minute, an hour of NTSC video has 108 frames less than an hour of "true 30 fps" video:
108,000 * 99.9% = 107,892 frames in an hour of NTSC video
108,000 - 107,892 = 108 frames difference

If we were to sequentially number each of these frames using the SMPTE Timecode format, the last frame of the video would be numbered 00:59:26:12:

108 frames = 00:00:03:18 in timecode format
01:00:00:00 - 00:00:03:18 = 00:59:26:12

That is 3 seconds and 18 frames shorter than an hour-long video. Drop-frame timecode is a SMPTE standard that maintains time accuracy by eliminating the fractional difference between the 29.97 fps frame rate and the 30 fps

When you use drop-frame timecode, Premiere 5.x adjusts the frame numbering so that an hour-long video has its last frame labeled 01:00:00:00.
Timecode measures time in Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Fractions-of-seconds called frames. However, in NTSC video, a frame is not an even fraction of a second! Thus, NTSC timecode is always subtly off from real time—by exactly 1.8 frames per minute. Drop-frame timecode numbering attempts to adjust for this discrepancy by dropping two numbers in the numbering sequence, once every minute except for every tenth minute (see the preceding section, Mathematics of 29.97 video, for details).The numbers that are dropped are frames 00 and 01 of each minute; thus, drop-frame numbering across the minute boundary looks like this:
..., 00:00:59:27, 00:00:59:28, 00:00:59:29, 00:01:00:02, 00:01:00:03, ...

Note, however, that you are off by only 1.8 frames per minute. If you adjust by two full frames every minute, you are still off by a little. Let's go through a sequence of minutes, to see how far off we are each minute, and where each adjustment leaves us: Thus, 00:10:00:00 in drop-frame is the same as 00:10:00:00 in real time! Also, 10 minutes of NTSC video contains an exact number of frames (17,982 frames), so every tenth minute ends on an exact frame boundary. This is how we can get exactly 1 hour of video to read as exactly 1 hour of timecode.

29.97 Video can be notated in either drop-frame or non-drop-frame format

You can notate 29.97 video using drop-frame or non-drop-frame format. The difference between the two is that with drop-frame format the frame address is periodically adjusted (once every minute) so that it exactly matches real time
(at the 10 minute mark), while with non-drop-frame format the frame address is never adjusted and gets progressively further away from real time.

Minute Start Position Frames Lost Drop Frame Adjusted Position

01 1.8 lost this minute drop 2 to correct 0.2 ahead
02 0.2 ahead 1.8 lost this minute drop 2 to correct 0.4 ahead
03 0.4 ahead 1.8 lost this minute drop 2 to correct 0.6 ahead
04 0.6 ahead 1.8 lost this minute drop 2 to correct 0.8 ahead
05 0.8 ahead 1.8 lost this minute drop 2 to correct 1.0 ahead
06 1.0 ahead 1.8 lost this minute drop 2 to correct 1.2 ahead
07 1.2 ahead 1.8 lost this minute drop 2 to correct 1.4 ahead
08 1.4 ahead 1.8 lost this minute drop 2 to correct 1.6 ahead
09 1.6 ahead 1.8 lost this minute drop 2 to correct 1.8 ahead
10 1.8 ahead 1.8 lost this minute drop 0

At the end of an hour-long video, the frame address for drop-frame format will be 01:00:00:00, while the frame address for non-drop-frame format will be 108 frames lower (remember, 108 frames out of 108,000, or 0.1%) at 00:59:56:12.
Conversely, at the point where the frame address for non-drop-frame format reads 01:00:00:00, the frame address for drop-frame format would be 01:00:03:18. Remember, this is longer than 1 hour of real time: 3.6 seconds out of 3600, or 0.1%.
Either numbering system could have been used for this theoretical video program. No matter which timecode format you use, the frame rate—29.97 fps—would be the same, and the total duration of the program—in real time—would be the same. The only difference is which address code gets stamped on what frame number.

Drop-frame timecode only drops numbers that refer to the frames, and not the actual

This is nothing complicated; just remember to keep your terminology straight. Much analog video equipment uses drop-frame SMPTE timecode. Just imagine if analog video were to drop the actual frames! First, it would visually disturbing to literally drop two frames every minute. Second, and more importantly, analog video equipment is
governed by a certain amount of tape moving past the heads at a certain speed. Even if the equipment didn't display two frames, there is no way for the physical mechanism to make up for the lost time. This is not the same as with digital video, where a capture or playback device will drop frames because it simply can't keep up with the amount of data being streamed through it. Also, when we talk about being 1.8 frames ahead or behind, we are referring to the frame numbering scheme being
ahead of real time. It does not refer to the video track being ahead or behind the audio track; audio that drifts away from its video is a different issue,

In summary, "dropped frames" refers to a playback or capture issue related to data rates and hardware capabilities; drop-frame timecode refers to a frame-numbering convention.

4th July 2008
Old 4th July 2008
Gear interested
Joined: Jun 2008
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speedguy is offline
Thanks for all of the good information and please keep it up.
8th July 2008
Old 8th July 2008
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Joined: Jun 2005
Posts: 6,157

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That's very nice of you to post so much useful information Georgia, thank you very much! I'll be referencing this every once in awhile, it's a little daunting actually.

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