The ATR-3350 uses a 3.5 mm TS plug (not a TRS) and puts out a typical dynamic mic level (-54 dB). With your TRS adapter, the low side may be floating. You might try a 3.5 mm TR to 1/4 inch TR adapter. To connect it properly to a balanced XLR input connect the TIP connection (hot) to XLR pin 2 and connect the SHIELD (low) to both
pins 1 and 3. If the mic is working and the XLR plug is in a mic input (not a line input) it should work assuming the ATR-3350 has a good battery and it's turned on.
Since the mic and the interface input both work, it's got to be a simple connection issue, unless you're in an alternate universe.
One additional thought: Some interfaces using "combo" XLR/TRS inputs have the TRS input attenuated by 40 or 50 dB because they expect a line-level feed from the TRS. Is it possible that your input is like that and the signal was then way too weak to hear using your TRS adapter?